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http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9724
Two-phase non-Darcy flow in heterogeneous porous media: A numerical investigation
AHMADI-SENICHAULT, Azita; ABBASIAN ARANI, Ali Akbar; LASSEUX, Didier
Significant inertial effects are observed for many applications such as flow in the near-wellbore region, in very permeable reservoirs or in packed-bed reactors. In these cases, the classical description of two-phase flow in porous media by the generalized Darcy's law is no longer valid. Due to the lack of a formalized theoretical model confirmed experimentally, this study is based on a generalized Darcy-Forchheimer approach for modelling two-phase incompressible non-stationary inertial flow in porous media. In this model, the momentum conservation equation for each phase, , has a quadratic correction to generalized Darcy’s law and is expressed as: (=”w” for water or “o” for oil): (1) This equation is completed with the mass conservation equation for each phase given by (2) and the capillary pressure and saturation relationships (3) (4) Using a finite volume formulation, an IMPES (IMplicit for Pressures, Explicit for Saturations) scheme and a Fixed Point method for the treatment of non-linearities caused by inertia, a 3D numerical tool has been developed. For clarity, results are presented in 1D and 2D configurations only. For 1D flow in a homogeneous porous medium, a validation is performed by comparing numerical results of the saturation front kinetics with a semi-analytical solution inspired from the “Buckley-Leverett” model extended to take into account inertia. The influence of inertial effects on the saturation profiles and therefore on the breakthrough curves for homogeneous media is analysed for different Reynolds numbers, thus emphasizing the necessity of taking into account this additional energy loss when necessary. For 1D heterogeneous configurations, a thorough analysis of the saturation fronts as well as the saturation jumps at the interface between two media of contrasted properties highlights the influence of inertial effects for different Reynolds and capillary numbers. In 2D heterogeneous configurations, saturation distributions are strongly affected by inertial effects. In particular, capillary trapping of the displaced fluid observed for the Darcy regime in certain regions can completely disappears when inertial effects become dominant.
Fri, 01 Jan 2010 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/97242010-01-01T00:00:00ZAHMADI-SENICHAULT, AzitaABBASIAN ARANI, Ali AkbarLASSEUX, DidierSignificant inertial effects are observed for many applications such as flow in the near-wellbore region, in very permeable reservoirs or in packed-bed reactors. In these cases, the classical description of two-phase flow in porous media by the generalized Darcy's law is no longer valid. Due to the lack of a formalized theoretical model confirmed experimentally, this study is based on a generalized Darcy-Forchheimer approach for modelling two-phase incompressible non-stationary inertial flow in porous media. In this model, the momentum conservation equation for each phase, , has a quadratic correction to generalized Darcy’s law and is expressed as: (=”w” for water or “o” for oil): (1) This equation is completed with the mass conservation equation for each phase given by (2) and the capillary pressure and saturation relationships (3) (4) Using a finite volume formulation, an IMPES (IMplicit for Pressures, Explicit for Saturations) scheme and a Fixed Point method for the treatment of non-linearities caused by inertia, a 3D numerical tool has been developed. For clarity, results are presented in 1D and 2D configurations only. For 1D flow in a homogeneous porous medium, a validation is performed by comparing numerical results of the saturation front kinetics with a semi-analytical solution inspired from the “Buckley-Leverett” model extended to take into account inertia. The influence of inertial effects on the saturation profiles and therefore on the breakthrough curves for homogeneous media is analysed for different Reynolds numbers, thus emphasizing the necessity of taking into account this additional energy loss when necessary. For 1D heterogeneous configurations, a thorough analysis of the saturation fronts as well as the saturation jumps at the interface between two media of contrasted properties highlights the influence of inertial effects for different Reynolds and capillary numbers. In 2D heterogeneous configurations, saturation distributions are strongly affected by inertial effects. In particular, capillary trapping of the displaced fluid observed for the Darcy regime in certain regions can completely disappears when inertial effects become dominant.A numerical approach of two-phase non-Darcy flow in heterogeneous porous media
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9982
A numerical approach of two-phase non-Darcy flow in heterogeneous porous media
ABBASIAN ARANI, Ali Akbar; AHMADI-SENICHAULT, Azita; LASSEUX, Didier
Significant inertial effects are observed for many applications such as flow in the near-wellbore region, in very permeable reservoirs or in packed-bed reactors. In these cases, the classical description of two-phase flow in porous media by the generalized Darcy's law is no longer valid. Due to the lack of a formalized theoretical model confirmed experimentally, our study is based on a generalized Darcy-Forchheimer approach for modelling two-phase incompressible inertial flow in porous media. Using a finite volume formulation, an IMPES (IMplicit for Pressures, Explicit for Saturations) scheme and a Fixed Point method for the treatment of non-linearities caused by inertia, a 3D numerical tool has been developed. For 1D flow in a homogeneous porous medium, comparison of saturation profiles obtained numerically at different times to those obtained semi-analytically using an “Inertial Buckley-Leverett model” allows a validation of the tool. The influence of inertial effects on the saturation profiles and therefore on the breakthrough curves for homogeneous media is analysed for different Reynolds numbers, thus emphasizing the necessity of taking into account this additional energy loss when necessary. For 1D heterogeneous configurations, a thorough analysis of the saturation fronts as well as the saturation jumps at the interface between two media of contrasted properties highlights the influence of inertial effects for different Reynolds and capillary numbers. In 2D heterogeneous configurations, saturation distributions are strongly affected by inertial effects. In particular, capillary trapping of the displaced fluid observed for the Darcy regime in certain regions can completely disappears when inertial effects become dominant.
Thu, 01 Jan 2009 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/99822009-01-01T00:00:00ZABBASIAN ARANI, Ali AkbarAHMADI-SENICHAULT, AzitaLASSEUX, DidierSignificant inertial effects are observed for many applications such as flow in the near-wellbore region, in very permeable reservoirs or in packed-bed reactors. In these cases, the classical description of two-phase flow in porous media by the generalized Darcy's law is no longer valid. Due to the lack of a formalized theoretical model confirmed experimentally, our study is based on a generalized Darcy-Forchheimer approach for modelling two-phase incompressible inertial flow in porous media. Using a finite volume formulation, an IMPES (IMplicit for Pressures, Explicit for Saturations) scheme and a Fixed Point method for the treatment of non-linearities caused by inertia, a 3D numerical tool has been developed. For 1D flow in a homogeneous porous medium, comparison of saturation profiles obtained numerically at different times to those obtained semi-analytically using an “Inertial Buckley-Leverett model” allows a validation of the tool. The influence of inertial effects on the saturation profiles and therefore on the breakthrough curves for homogeneous media is analysed for different Reynolds numbers, thus emphasizing the necessity of taking into account this additional energy loss when necessary. For 1D heterogeneous configurations, a thorough analysis of the saturation fronts as well as the saturation jumps at the interface between two media of contrasted properties highlights the influence of inertial effects for different Reynolds and capillary numbers. In 2D heterogeneous configurations, saturation distributions are strongly affected by inertial effects. In particular, capillary trapping of the displaced fluid observed for the Darcy regime in certain regions can completely disappears when inertial effects become dominant.Derivation of a macroscopic model for two-phase non-Darcy flow in homogeneous porous media using volume averaging
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9981
Derivation of a macroscopic model for two-phase non-Darcy flow in homogeneous porous media using volume averaging
ABBASIAN ARANI, Ali Akbar; LASSEUX, Didier; AHMADI-SENICHAULT, Azita
The purpose of this work is to propose a derivation of a macroscopic model for a certain class of inertial two-phase, incompressible, Newtonian fluid flow through homogenous porous media. The starting point of the procedure is the pore-scale boundary value problem given by the continuity and Navier–Stokes equations in each phase β and γ along with boundary conditions at interfaces. The method of volume averaging is employed subjected to a series of constraints for the development to hold. These constraints are on the length- and time-scales, as well as, on some quantities involving capillary, Weber and Reynolds numbers that define the class of two-phase flow under consideration. The development also assumes that fluctuations of the curvature of the fluid–fluid interfaces are unimportant over the unit cell representing the porous medium. Under these circumstances, the resulting macroscopic momentum equation, for the -phase (=, ) relates the gradient of the phase-averaged pressure to the filtration or Darcy velocity in a coupled nonlinear form. All tensors appearing in the macroscopic equation can be determined from closure problems that are to be solved using a spatially periodic model of a porous medium. Some indications to compute these tensors are provided.
Thu, 01 Jan 2009 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/99812009-01-01T00:00:00ZABBASIAN ARANI, Ali AkbarLASSEUX, DidierAHMADI-SENICHAULT, AzitaThe purpose of this work is to propose a derivation of a macroscopic model for a certain class of inertial two-phase, incompressible, Newtonian fluid flow through homogenous porous media. The starting point of the procedure is the pore-scale boundary value problem given by the continuity and Navier–Stokes equations in each phase β and γ along with boundary conditions at interfaces. The method of volume averaging is employed subjected to a series of constraints for the development to hold. These constraints are on the length- and time-scales, as well as, on some quantities involving capillary, Weber and Reynolds numbers that define the class of two-phase flow under consideration. The development also assumes that fluctuations of the curvature of the fluid–fluid interfaces are unimportant over the unit cell representing the porous medium. Under these circumstances, the resulting macroscopic momentum equation, for the -phase (=, ) relates the gradient of the phase-averaged pressure to the filtration or Darcy velocity in a coupled nonlinear form. All tensors appearing in the macroscopic equation can be determined from closure problems that are to be solved using a spatially periodic model of a porous medium. Some indications to compute these tensors are provided.A numerical analysis of the inertial correction to Darcy's law
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9980
A numerical analysis of the inertial correction to Darcy's law
ABBASIAN ARANI, Ali Akbar; LASSEUX, Didier; AHMADI-SENICHAULT, Azita
Our interest in this work is the stationary one-phase Newtonian flow in a class of homogeneous porous media at large enough flow rates so that the relationship between the filtration velocity and the pressure gradient is no longer linear. The non linear -inertial- correction to Darcy's law is investigated from a numerical point of view on model periodic structures made of regular arrays of cylinders. The starting point of the analysis is the macroscopic model resulting from the volume averaging of the mass and momentum (Navier-Stokes) equations at the pore scale. Identification of the macroscopic properties in this model is made by first solving the microscopic flow as well as the closure problem resulting from the upscaling. From these solutions, the inertial correction is computed and analyzed with respect to the Reynolds number and the pressure gradient orientation relative to the principal axes of the periodic unit cell.
Thu, 01 Jan 2009 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/99802009-01-01T00:00:00ZABBASIAN ARANI, Ali AkbarLASSEUX, DidierAHMADI-SENICHAULT, AzitaOur interest in this work is the stationary one-phase Newtonian flow in a class of homogeneous porous media at large enough flow rates so that the relationship between the filtration velocity and the pressure gradient is no longer linear. The non linear -inertial- correction to Darcy's law is investigated from a numerical point of view on model periodic structures made of regular arrays of cylinders. The starting point of the analysis is the macroscopic model resulting from the volume averaging of the mass and momentum (Navier-Stokes) equations at the pore scale. Identification of the macroscopic properties in this model is made by first solving the microscopic flow as well as the closure problem resulting from the upscaling. From these solutions, the inertial correction is computed and analyzed with respect to the Reynolds number and the pressure gradient orientation relative to the principal axes of the periodic unit cell.Numerical simulation of two-phase inertial flow in heterogeneous porous media
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9727
Numerical simulation of two-phase inertial flow in heterogeneous porous media
AHMADI-SENICHAULT, Azita; ABBASIAN ARANI, Ali Akbar; LASSEUX, Didier
In this study, non-Darcy inertial two-phase incompressible and non-stationary flow in heterogeneous porous media is analyzed using numerical simulations. For the purpose, a 3D numerical tool was fully developed using a finite volume formulation, although for clarity, results are presented in 1D and 2D configurations only. Since a formalized theoretical model confirmed by experimental data is still lacking, our study is based on the widely used generalized Darcy–Forchheimer model. First, a validation is performed by comparing numerical results of the saturation front kinetics with a semi-analytical solution inspired from the Buckley–Leverett model extended to take into account inertia. Second, we highlight the importance of inertial terms on the evolution of saturation fronts as a function of a suitable Reynolds number. Saturation fields are shown to have a structure markedly different from the classical case without inertia, especially for heterogeneous media, thereby, emphasizing the necessity of a more complete model than the classical generalized Darcy’s one when inertial effects are not negligible.
We wish to thank our students, Y. Benarafa and S. Delau, who participated in this study at its early stage.
Fri, 01 Jan 2010 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/97272010-01-01T00:00:00ZAHMADI-SENICHAULT, AzitaABBASIAN ARANI, Ali AkbarLASSEUX, DidierIn this study, non-Darcy inertial two-phase incompressible and non-stationary flow in heterogeneous porous media is analyzed using numerical simulations. For the purpose, a 3D numerical tool was fully developed using a finite volume formulation, although for clarity, results are presented in 1D and 2D configurations only. Since a formalized theoretical model confirmed by experimental data is still lacking, our study is based on the widely used generalized Darcy–Forchheimer model. First, a validation is performed by comparing numerical results of the saturation front kinetics with a semi-analytical solution inspired from the Buckley–Leverett model extended to take into account inertia. Second, we highlight the importance of inertial terms on the evolution of saturation fronts as a function of a suitable Reynolds number. Saturation fields are shown to have a structure markedly different from the classical case without inertia, especially for heterogeneous media, thereby, emphasizing the necessity of a more complete model than the classical generalized Darcy’s one when inertial effects are not negligible.Résolution numérique de l’écoulement diphasique en milieu poreux hétérogène incluant les effets inertiels
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10029
Résolution numérique de l’écoulement diphasique en milieu poreux hétérogène incluant les effets inertiels
ABBASIAN ARANI, Ali Akbar; LASSEUX, Didier; AHMADI-SENICHAULT, Azita
La mise en place d'un outil numérique 3D de simulation d'écoulement diphasique hors régime de Darcy basé sur le modèle de Darcy-Forchheimer généralisé est présentée. L'outil est tout d’abord validé à l’aide d'une solution semi analytique 1D de type Buckley-Leverett. Des résultats obtenus dans différentes configurations homogène et hétérogènes 1D et 2D mettent en évidence l'importance des termes inertiels en fonction d'un nombre de Reynolds de l'écoulement.
Mon, 01 Jan 2007 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/100292007-01-01T00:00:00ZABBASIAN ARANI, Ali AkbarLASSEUX, DidierAHMADI-SENICHAULT, AzitaLa mise en place d'un outil numérique 3D de simulation d'écoulement diphasique hors régime de Darcy basé sur le modèle de Darcy-Forchheimer généralisé est présentée. L'outil est tout d’abord validé à l’aide d'une solution semi analytique 1D de type Buckley-Leverett. Des résultats obtenus dans différentes configurations homogène et hétérogènes 1D et 2D mettent en évidence l'importance des termes inertiels en fonction d'un nombre de Reynolds de l'écoulement.Two-phase inertial flow in homogeneous porous media: A theoretical derivation of a macroscopic model
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9745
Two-phase inertial flow in homogeneous porous media: A theoretical derivation of a macroscopic model
LASSEUX, Didier; AHMADI-SENICHAULT, Azita; ABBASIAN ARANI, Ali Akbar
The purpose of this article is to derive a macroscopic model for a certain class of inertial two-phase, incompressible, Newtonian fluid flow through homogenous porous media. Starting from the continuity and Navier–Stokes equations in each phase β and γ , the method of volume averaging is employed subjected to constraints that are explicitly provided to obtain the macroscopic mass and momentum balance equations. These constraints are on the length- and time-scales, as well as, on some quantities involving capillary, Weber and Reynolds numbers that define the class of two-phase flow under consideration. The resulting macroscopic momentum equation relates the phase-averaged pressure gradient ∇ pα α to the filtration or Darcy velocity vα in a coupled nonlinear form explicitly given by : (equations) In these equations, Fαα and Fακ are the inertial and coupling inertial correction tensors that are functions of flow-rates. The dominant and coupling permeability tensors K∗αα and K∗ακ and the permeability and viscous drag tensors Kα and Kακ are intrinsic and are those defined the conventional manner as in (Whitaker, Chem Eng Sci 49:765–780, 1994) and (Lasseux et al., Transport Porous Media 24(1):107–137, 1996). All these tensors can be determined from closure problems that are to be solved using a spatially periodic model of a porous medium. The practical procedure to compute these tensors is provided.
Tue, 01 Jan 2008 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/97452008-01-01T00:00:00ZLASSEUX, DidierAHMADI-SENICHAULT, AzitaABBASIAN ARANI, Ali AkbarThe purpose of this article is to derive a macroscopic model for a certain class of inertial two-phase, incompressible, Newtonian fluid flow through homogenous porous media. Starting from the continuity and Navier–Stokes equations in each phase β and γ , the method of volume averaging is employed subjected to constraints that are explicitly provided to obtain the macroscopic mass and momentum balance equations. These constraints are on the length- and time-scales, as well as, on some quantities involving capillary, Weber and Reynolds numbers that define the class of two-phase flow under consideration. The resulting macroscopic momentum equation relates the phase-averaged pressure gradient ∇ pα α to the filtration or Darcy velocity vα in a coupled nonlinear form explicitly given by : (equations) In these equations, Fαα and Fακ are the inertial and coupling inertial correction tensors that are functions of flow-rates. The dominant and coupling permeability tensors K∗αα and K∗ακ and the permeability and viscous drag tensors Kα and Kακ are intrinsic and are those defined the conventional manner as in (Whitaker, Chem Eng Sci 49:765–780, 1994) and (Lasseux et al., Transport Porous Media 24(1):107–137, 1996). All these tensors can be determined from closure problems that are to be solved using a spatially periodic model of a porous medium. The practical procedure to compute these tensors is provided.On the stationary macroscopic inertial effects for one phase flow in ordered and disordered porous media
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9726
On the stationary macroscopic inertial effects for one phase flow in ordered and disordered porous media
LASSEUX, Didier; ABBASIAN ARANI, Ali Akbar; AHMADI-SENICHAULT, Azita
We report on the controversial dependence of the inertial correction to Darcy’s law upon the filtration velocity (or Reynolds number) for one-phase Newtonian incompressible flow in model porous media. Our analysis is performed on the basis of an upscaled form of the Navier-Stokes equation requiring the solution of both the micro-scale flow and the associated closure problem. It is carried out with a special focus on the different regimes of inertia (weak and strong inertia) and the crossover between these regimes versus flow orientation and structural parameters, namely porosity and disorder. For ordered structures, it is shown that (i) the tensor involved in the expression of the correction is generally not symmetric, despite the isotropic feature of the permeability tensor. This is in accordance with the fact that the extra force due to inertia exerted on the structure is not pure drag in the general case; (ii) the Forchheimer type of correction (which strictly depends on the square of the filtration velocity) is an approximation that does not hold at all for particular orientations of the pressure gradient with respect to the axes of the structure; and (iii) the weak inertia regime always exists as predicted by theoretical developments. When structural disorder is introduced, this work shows that (i) the quadratic dependence of the correction upon the filtration velocity is very robust over a wide range of the Reynolds number in the strong inertia regime; (ii) the Reynolds number interval corresponding to weak inertia, that is always present, is strongly reduced in comparison to ordered structures. In conjunction with its relatively small magnitude, it explains why this weak inertia regime is most of the time overlooked during experiments on natural media. In all cases, the Forchheimer correction implies that the permeability is different from the intrinsic one.
Sat, 01 Jan 2011 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/97262011-01-01T00:00:00ZLASSEUX, DidierABBASIAN ARANI, Ali AkbarAHMADI-SENICHAULT, AzitaWe report on the controversial dependence of the inertial correction to Darcy’s law upon the filtration velocity (or Reynolds number) for one-phase Newtonian incompressible flow in model porous media. Our analysis is performed on the basis of an upscaled form of the Navier-Stokes equation requiring the solution of both the micro-scale flow and the associated closure problem. It is carried out with a special focus on the different regimes of inertia (weak and strong inertia) and the crossover between these regimes versus flow orientation and structural parameters, namely porosity and disorder. For ordered structures, it is shown that (i) the tensor involved in the expression of the correction is generally not symmetric, despite the isotropic feature of the permeability tensor. This is in accordance with the fact that the extra force due to inertia exerted on the structure is not pure drag in the general case; (ii) the Forchheimer type of correction (which strictly depends on the square of the filtration velocity) is an approximation that does not hold at all for particular orientations of the pressure gradient with respect to the axes of the structure; and (iii) the weak inertia regime always exists as predicted by theoretical developments. When structural disorder is introduced, this work shows that (i) the quadratic dependence of the correction upon the filtration velocity is very robust over a wide range of the Reynolds number in the strong inertia regime; (ii) the Reynolds number interval corresponding to weak inertia, that is always present, is strongly reduced in comparison to ordered structures. In conjunction with its relatively small magnitude, it explains why this weak inertia regime is most of the time overlooked during experiments on natural media. In all cases, the Forchheimer correction implies that the permeability is different from the intrinsic one.One-phase flow in porous media: is the Forchheimer correction relevant?
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9889
One-phase flow in porous media: is the Forchheimer correction relevant?
LASSEUX, Didier; AHMADI-SENICHAULT, Azita; ABBASIAN ARANI, Ali Akbar
Our interest in this work is dedicated to the dependence upon the filtration velocity (or Reynolds number) of the inertial correction to Darcy's law for one-phase flow in homogeneous porous media. The starting point of our analysis is the averaged flow model operating at Darcy's scale. It shows that the inertial correction to Darcy's law involves a second order tensor that can be determined from the solution of the associated closure problem requiring the microscopic (pore-scale) velocity field. Numerical solutions achieved on 2D model structures are presented. The accent is laid upon the role of the Reynolds number, pressure gradient orientation and structural parameters such as porosity and structural disorder. The Forchheimer type of correction, exhibiting a quadratic dependence upon the filtration velocity, is discussed in different situations.
Sun, 01 Jan 2012 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/98892012-01-01T00:00:00ZLASSEUX, DidierAHMADI-SENICHAULT, AzitaABBASIAN ARANI, Ali AkbarOur interest in this work is dedicated to the dependence upon the filtration velocity (or Reynolds number) of the inertial correction to Darcy's law for one-phase flow in homogeneous porous media. The starting point of our analysis is the averaged flow model operating at Darcy's scale. It shows that the inertial correction to Darcy's law involves a second order tensor that can be determined from the solution of the associated closure problem requiring the microscopic (pore-scale) velocity field. Numerical solutions achieved on 2D model structures are presented. The accent is laid upon the role of the Reynolds number, pressure gradient orientation and structural parameters such as porosity and structural disorder. The Forchheimer type of correction, exhibiting a quadratic dependence upon the filtration velocity, is discussed in different situations.Analysis of the role of structural disorder on the inertial correction to Darcy’s Law
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9976
Analysis of the role of structural disorder on the inertial correction to Darcy’s Law
LASSEUX, Didier; AHMADI-SENICHAULT, Azita; ABBASIAN ARANI, Ali Akbar
This work focuses on the stationary one-phase Newtonian flow in a class of homogeneous porous media at large enough flow rates leading to a non-linear relationship between the filtration velocity and the pressure gradient. A numerical analysis of the non linear -inertialcorrection to Darcy's law is carried out for model periodic structures made of arrays of square-section cylinders. The global aim is to determine and analyze the effective properties appearing in the macroscopic model resulting from the volume averaging of the mass and momentum (Navier-Stokes) equations at the pore scale
Fri, 01 Jan 2010 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/99762010-01-01T00:00:00ZLASSEUX, DidierAHMADI-SENICHAULT, AzitaABBASIAN ARANI, Ali AkbarThis work focuses on the stationary one-phase Newtonian flow in a class of homogeneous porous media at large enough flow rates leading to a non-linear relationship between the filtration velocity and the pressure gradient. A numerical analysis of the non linear -inertialcorrection to Darcy's law is carried out for model periodic structures made of arrays of square-section cylinders. The global aim is to determine and analyze the effective properties appearing in the macroscopic model resulting from the volume averaging of the mass and momentum (Navier-Stokes) equations at the pore scale