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http://hdl.handle.net/10985/13535
Numerical integration of rate-independent BCC single crystal plasticity models: comparative study of two classes of numerical algorithms
AKPAMA, Holanyo K.; BEN BETTAIEB, Mohamed; ABED-MERAIM, Farid
In an incremental formulation suitable to numerical implementation, the use of rate-independent theory of crystal plasticity essentially leads to four fundamental problems. The first is to determine the set of potentially active slip systems over a time increment. The second is to select the active slip systems among the potentially active ones. The third is to compute the slip rates (or the slip increments) for the active slip systems. And the last problem is the possible non-uniqueness of slip rates. The purpose of this paper is to propose satisfactory responses to the above-mentioned first three issues by presenting and comparing two novel numerical algorithms. The first algorithm is based on the usual return-mapping integration scheme, while the second follows the so-called ultimate scheme. The latter is shown to be more relevant and efficient than the former. These comparative performances are illustrated through various numerical simulations of the mechanical behavior of single crystals and polycrystalline aggregates subjected to monotonic and complex loadings. Although these algorithms are applied in this paper to Body-Centered-Cubic (BCC) crystal structures, they are quite general and suitable for integrating the constitutive equations for other crystal structures (e.g., FCC and HCP).
Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/135352016-01-01T00:00:00ZAKPAMA, Holanyo K.BEN BETTAIEB, MohamedABED-MERAIM, FaridIn an incremental formulation suitable to numerical implementation, the use of rate-independent theory of crystal plasticity essentially leads to four fundamental problems. The first is to determine the set of potentially active slip systems over a time increment. The second is to select the active slip systems among the potentially active ones. The third is to compute the slip rates (or the slip increments) for the active slip systems. And the last problem is the possible non-uniqueness of slip rates. The purpose of this paper is to propose satisfactory responses to the above-mentioned first three issues by presenting and comparing two novel numerical algorithms. The first algorithm is based on the usual return-mapping integration scheme, while the second follows the so-called ultimate scheme. The latter is shown to be more relevant and efficient than the former. These comparative performances are illustrated through various numerical simulations of the mechanical behavior of single crystals and polycrystalline aggregates subjected to monotonic and complex loadings. Although these algorithms are applied in this paper to Body-Centered-Cubic (BCC) crystal structures, they are quite general and suitable for integrating the constitutive equations for other crystal structures (e.g., FCC and HCP).Computationally efficient predictions of crystal plasticity based forming limit diagrams using a spectral database
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/13136
Computationally efficient predictions of crystal plasticity based forming limit diagrams using a spectral database
GUPTA, Akash; BEN BETTAIEB, Mohamed; ABED-MERAIM, Farid; KALIDINDI, Surya
The present investigation focuses on the development of a fast and robust numerical tool for the prediction of the forming limit diagrams (FLDs) for thin polycrystalline metal sheets using a Taylor-type (full constraints) crystal plasticity model. The incipience of localized necking is numerically determined by the well-known Marciniak–Kuczynski model. The crystal plasticity constitutive equations, on which these computations are based, are known to be highly nonlinear, thus involving computationally very expensive solutions. This presents a major impediment to the wider adoption of crystal plasticity theories in the computation of FLDs. In this work, this limitation is addressed by using a recently developed spectral database approach based on discrete Fourier transforms (DFTs). Significant improvements were made to the prior approach and a new database was created to address this challenge successfully. These extensions are detailed in the present paper. It is shown that the use of the database allows a significant reduction in the computational cost involved in crystal plasticity based FLD predictions (a reduction of about 96% in terms of CPU time).
Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/131362018-01-01T00:00:00ZGUPTA, AkashBEN BETTAIEB, MohamedABED-MERAIM, FaridKALIDINDI, SuryaThe present investigation focuses on the development of a fast and robust numerical tool for the prediction of the forming limit diagrams (FLDs) for thin polycrystalline metal sheets using a Taylor-type (full constraints) crystal plasticity model. The incipience of localized necking is numerically determined by the well-known Marciniak–Kuczynski model. The crystal plasticity constitutive equations, on which these computations are based, are known to be highly nonlinear, thus involving computationally very expensive solutions. This presents a major impediment to the wider adoption of crystal plasticity theories in the computation of FLDs. In this work, this limitation is addressed by using a recently developed spectral database approach based on discrete Fourier transforms (DFTs). Significant improvements were made to the prior approach and a new database was created to address this challenge successfully. These extensions are detailed in the present paper. It is shown that the use of the database allows a significant reduction in the computational cost involved in crystal plasticity based FLD predictions (a reduction of about 96% in terms of CPU time).Localized necking predictions based on rate-independent self-consistent polycrystal plasticity: Bifurcation analysis versus imperfection approach
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/11856
Localized necking predictions based on rate-independent self-consistent polycrystal plasticity: Bifurcation analysis versus imperfection approach
AKPAMA, Holanyo K.; BEN BETTAIEB, Mohamed; ABED-MERAIM, Farid
The present study focuses on the development of a relevant numerical tool for predicting the onset of localized necking in polycrystalline aggregates. The latter are assumed to be representative of thin metal sheets. In this tool, a micromechanical model, based on the rate-independent self-consistent multi-scale scheme, is developed to accurately describe the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline aggregates from that of their single crystal constituents. In the current paper, the constitutive framework at the single crystal scale follows a finite strain formulation of the rate-independent theory of crystal elastoplasticity. To predict the occurrence of localized necking in polycrystalline aggregates, this micromechanical modeling is combined with two main strain localization approaches: the bifurcation analysis and the initial imperfection method. The formulation of both strain localization indicators takes into consideration the plane stress conditions to which thin metal sheets are subjected during deformation. From a numerical point of view, strain localization analysis with this crystal plasticity approach can be viewed as a strongly nonlinear problem. Hence, several numerical algorithms and techniques are developed and implemented in the aim of efficiently solving this non-linear problem. Various simulation results obtained by the application of the developed numerical tool are presented and extensively discussed. It is demonstrated from these results that the predictions obtained with the MarciniakeKuczynski procedure tend towards those yielded by the bifurcation theory, when the initial imperfection ratio tends towards zero. Furthermore, the above result is shown to be valid for both scale-transition schemes, namely the full-constraint Taylor model and self-consistent scheme.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/118562017-01-01T00:00:00ZAKPAMA, Holanyo K.BEN BETTAIEB, MohamedABED-MERAIM, FaridThe present study focuses on the development of a relevant numerical tool for predicting the onset of localized necking in polycrystalline aggregates. The latter are assumed to be representative of thin metal sheets. In this tool, a micromechanical model, based on the rate-independent self-consistent multi-scale scheme, is developed to accurately describe the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline aggregates from that of their single crystal constituents. In the current paper, the constitutive framework at the single crystal scale follows a finite strain formulation of the rate-independent theory of crystal elastoplasticity. To predict the occurrence of localized necking in polycrystalline aggregates, this micromechanical modeling is combined with two main strain localization approaches: the bifurcation analysis and the initial imperfection method. The formulation of both strain localization indicators takes into consideration the plane stress conditions to which thin metal sheets are subjected during deformation. From a numerical point of view, strain localization analysis with this crystal plasticity approach can be viewed as a strongly nonlinear problem. Hence, several numerical algorithms and techniques are developed and implemented in the aim of efficiently solving this non-linear problem. Various simulation results obtained by the application of the developed numerical tool are presented and extensively discussed. It is demonstrated from these results that the predictions obtained with the MarciniakeKuczynski procedure tend towards those yielded by the bifurcation theory, when the initial imperfection ratio tends towards zero. Furthermore, the above result is shown to be valid for both scale-transition schemes, namely the full-constraint Taylor model and self-consistent scheme.Micromechanics-Based Damage Analysis of Fracture in Ti5553 Alloy with Application to Bolted Sectors
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10046
Micromechanics-Based Damage Analysis of Fracture in Ti5553 Alloy with Application to Bolted Sectors
BEN BETTAIEB, Mohamed; VAN HOOF, Thibaut; MINNEBO, Hans; PARDOEN, Thomas; DUFOUR, Philippe; JACQUES, Pascal J.; HABRAKEN, Anne-Marie
A physics-based, uncoupled damage model is calibrated using cylindrical notched round tensile specimens made of Ti5553 and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The fracture strain of Ti5553 is lower than for Ti-6Al-4V in the full range of stress triaxiality. This lower ductility originates from a higher volume fraction of damage sites. By proper heat treatment, the fracture strain of Ti5553 increases by almost a factor of two, as a result of a larger damage nucleation stress. This result proves the potential for further optimization of the damage resistance of the Ti5553 alloy. The damage model is combined with an elastoviscoplastic law in order to predict failure in a wide range of loading conditions. In particular, a specific application involving bolted sectors is addressed in order to determine the potential of replacing the Ti-6Al-4V by the Ti5553 alloy.
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/100462015-01-01T00:00:00ZBEN BETTAIEB, MohamedVAN HOOF, ThibautMINNEBO, HansPARDOEN, ThomasDUFOUR, PhilippeJACQUES, Pascal J.HABRAKEN, Anne-MarieA physics-based, uncoupled damage model is calibrated using cylindrical notched round tensile specimens made of Ti5553 and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The fracture strain of Ti5553 is lower than for Ti-6Al-4V in the full range of stress triaxiality. This lower ductility originates from a higher volume fraction of damage sites. By proper heat treatment, the fracture strain of Ti5553 increases by almost a factor of two, as a result of a larger damage nucleation stress. This result proves the potential for further optimization of the damage resistance of the Ti5553 alloy. The damage model is combined with an elastoviscoplastic law in order to predict failure in a wide range of loading conditions. In particular, a specific application involving bolted sectors is addressed in order to determine the potential of replacing the Ti-6Al-4V by the Ti5553 alloy.Combined effect of damage and plastic anisotropy on the ductility limit of thin metal sheets
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/11234
Combined effect of damage and plastic anisotropy on the ductility limit of thin metal sheets
MSOLLI, Sabeur; BEN BETTAIEB, Mohamed; ABED-MERAIM, Farid
It is well known that both damage and plastic anisotropy strongly affect the ductility limit of thin metal sheets. Due to the manufacturing processes, initial defects, such as inclusions and voids, are commonly present in the produced sheet metals. Plastic anisotropy is a direct outcome of the rolling process, where the resulting metal sheets exhibit preferred crystallographic orientations or strong texture. In the present study, the combined effect of plastic anisotropy and damage on localized necking is numerically investigated and analyzed. To this aim, an improved version of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) constitutive framework is used to model the mechanical behavior of the studied sheet. This version, which is an extension of the original GTN model, incorporates Hill’s anisotropic yield function to take into account the plastic anisotropy of the matrix material. Particular attention is devoted to the derivation of the analytical tangent modulus associated with this constitutive model. This extended GTN model is successfully coupled with bifurcation theory to predict sheet metal ductility limits, which are represented in terms of forming limit diagrams (FLDs). The effect of some material parameters (e.g.,anisotropy parameters of the metallic matrix) on the shape and the location of the predicted FLDs is then investigated and discussed through numerical simulations.
Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/112342016-01-01T00:00:00ZMSOLLI, SabeurBEN BETTAIEB, MohamedABED-MERAIM, FaridIt is well known that both damage and plastic anisotropy strongly affect the ductility limit of thin metal sheets. Due to the manufacturing processes, initial defects, such as inclusions and voids, are commonly present in the produced sheet metals. Plastic anisotropy is a direct outcome of the rolling process, where the resulting metal sheets exhibit preferred crystallographic orientations or strong texture. In the present study, the combined effect of plastic anisotropy and damage on localized necking is numerically investigated and analyzed. To this aim, an improved version of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) constitutive framework is used to model the mechanical behavior of the studied sheet. This version, which is an extension of the original GTN model, incorporates Hill’s anisotropic yield function to take into account the plastic anisotropy of the matrix material. Particular attention is devoted to the derivation of the analytical tangent modulus associated with this constitutive model. This extended GTN model is successfully coupled with bifurcation theory to predict sheet metal ductility limits, which are represented in terms of forming limit diagrams (FLDs). The effect of some material parameters (e.g.,anisotropy parameters of the metallic matrix) on the shape and the location of the predicted FLDs is then investigated and discussed through numerical simulations.Numerical integration of rate-independent BCC single crystal plasticity models: comparative study of two classes of numerical algorithms
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10654
Numerical integration of rate-independent BCC single crystal plasticity models: comparative study of two classes of numerical algorithms
AKPAMA, Holanyo K.; BEN BETTAIEB, Mohamed; ABED-MERAIM, Farid
In an incremental formulation suitable to numerical implementation, the use of rate-independent theory of crystal plasticity essentially leads to four fundamental problems. The first is to determine the set of potentially active slip systems over a time increment. The second is to select the active slip systems among the potentially active ones. The third is to compute the slip rates (or the slip increments) for the active slip systems. And the last problem is the possible non-uniqueness of slip rates. The purpose of this paper is to propose satisfactory responses to the above-mentioned first three issues by presenting and comparing two novel numerical algorithms. The first algorithm is based on the usual return-mapping integration scheme, while the second follows the so-called ultimate scheme. The latter is shown to be more relevant and efficient than the former. These comparative performances are illustrated through various numerical simulations of the mechanical behavior of single crystals and polycrystalline aggregates subjected to monotonic and complex loadings. Although these algorithms are applied in this paper to Body-Centered-Cubic (BCC) crystal structures, they are quite general and suitable for integrating the constitutive equations for other crystal structures (e.g., FCC and HCP).
Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/106542016-01-01T00:00:00ZAKPAMA, Holanyo K.BEN BETTAIEB, MohamedABED-MERAIM, FaridIn an incremental formulation suitable to numerical implementation, the use of rate-independent theory of crystal plasticity essentially leads to four fundamental problems. The first is to determine the set of potentially active slip systems over a time increment. The second is to select the active slip systems among the potentially active ones. The third is to compute the slip rates (or the slip increments) for the active slip systems. And the last problem is the possible non-uniqueness of slip rates. The purpose of this paper is to propose satisfactory responses to the above-mentioned first three issues by presenting and comparing two novel numerical algorithms. The first algorithm is based on the usual return-mapping integration scheme, while the second follows the so-called ultimate scheme. The latter is shown to be more relevant and efficient than the former. These comparative performances are illustrated through various numerical simulations of the mechanical behavior of single crystals and polycrystalline aggregates subjected to monotonic and complex loadings. Although these algorithms are applied in this paper to Body-Centered-Cubic (BCC) crystal structures, they are quite general and suitable for integrating the constitutive equations for other crystal structures (e.g., FCC and HCP).Influence of the Non-Schmid Effects on the Ductility Limit of Polycrystalline Sheet Metals
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/13534
Influence of the Non-Schmid Effects on the Ductility Limit of Polycrystalline Sheet Metals
BEN BETTAIEB, Mohamed; ABED-MERAIM, Farid
The yield criterion in rate-independent single crystal plasticity is most often defined by the classical Schmid law. However, various experimental studies have shown that the plastic flow of several single crystals (especially with Body Centered Cubic crystallographic structure) often exhibits some non-Schmid effects. The main objective of the current contribution is to study the impact of these non-Schmid effects on the ductility limit of polycrystalline sheet metals. To this end, the Taylor multiscale scheme is used to determine the mechanical behavior of a volume element that is assumed to be representative of the sheet metal. The mechanical behavior of the single crystals is described by a finite strain rate-independent constitutive theory, where some non-Schmid effects are accounted for in the modeling of the plastic flow. The bifurcation theory is coupled with the Taylor multiscale scheme to predict the onset of localized necking in the polycrystalline aggregate. The impact of the considered non-Schmid effects on both the single crystal behavior and the polycrystal behavior is carefully analyzed. It is shown, in particular, that non-Schmid effects tend to precipitate the occurrence of localized necking in polycrystalline aggregates and they slightly influence the orientation of the localization band.
Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/135342018-01-01T00:00:00ZBEN BETTAIEB, MohamedABED-MERAIM, FaridThe yield criterion in rate-independent single crystal plasticity is most often defined by the classical Schmid law. However, various experimental studies have shown that the plastic flow of several single crystals (especially with Body Centered Cubic crystallographic structure) often exhibits some non-Schmid effects. The main objective of the current contribution is to study the impact of these non-Schmid effects on the ductility limit of polycrystalline sheet metals. To this end, the Taylor multiscale scheme is used to determine the mechanical behavior of a volume element that is assumed to be representative of the sheet metal. The mechanical behavior of the single crystals is described by a finite strain rate-independent constitutive theory, where some non-Schmid effects are accounted for in the modeling of the plastic flow. The bifurcation theory is coupled with the Taylor multiscale scheme to predict the onset of localized necking in the polycrystalline aggregate. The impact of the considered non-Schmid effects on both the single crystal behavior and the polycrystal behavior is carefully analyzed. It is shown, in particular, that non-Schmid effects tend to precipitate the occurrence of localized necking in polycrystalline aggregates and they slightly influence the orientation of the localization band.Theoretical and numerical investigation of the impact of out-of-plane compressive stress on sheet metal formability
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/11857
Theoretical and numerical investigation of the impact of out-of-plane compressive stress on sheet metal formability
BEN BETTAIEB, Mohamed; ABED-MERAIM, Farid
In modern sheet metal forming processes, such as hydroforming and single point incremental forming, sheet metals are often subjected to out-of-plane compressive stresses in addition to traditional in-plane stresses. However, the effect of these out-of-plane stresses on the onset of plastic strain localization is not considered when classic necking criteria are used, as the latter are generally formulated based on the plane stress assumption. The main objective of the present investigation is to overcome this limitation by developing numerical tools and analytical relations that allow considering the influence of these compressive stresses on the prediction of localized necking. In the different tools developed, and for comparison purposes, finite strain versions of both the deformation theory of plasticity and the rigid-plastic flow theory are used to describe the mechanical behavior of the metal sheet. Furthermore, both the bifurcation theory and the initial imperfection approach are employed to predict the onset of strain localization. Various numerical predictions are reported to illustrate the effect of normal stress on the occurrence of localized necking in sheet metals. From these different results, it is clearly demonstrated that out-of-plane stresses may notably enhance sheet metal formability and, therefore, this property can be effectively used to avoid the initiation of early strain localization.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/118572017-01-01T00:00:00ZBEN BETTAIEB, MohamedABED-MERAIM, FaridIn modern sheet metal forming processes, such as hydroforming and single point incremental forming, sheet metals are often subjected to out-of-plane compressive stresses in addition to traditional in-plane stresses. However, the effect of these out-of-plane stresses on the onset of plastic strain localization is not considered when classic necking criteria are used, as the latter are generally formulated based on the plane stress assumption. The main objective of the present investigation is to overcome this limitation by developing numerical tools and analytical relations that allow considering the influence of these compressive stresses on the prediction of localized necking. In the different tools developed, and for comparison purposes, finite strain versions of both the deformation theory of plasticity and the rigid-plastic flow theory are used to describe the mechanical behavior of the metal sheet. Furthermore, both the bifurcation theory and the initial imperfection approach are employed to predict the onset of strain localization. Various numerical predictions are reported to illustrate the effect of normal stress on the occurrence of localized necking in sheet metals. From these different results, it is clearly demonstrated that out-of-plane stresses may notably enhance sheet metal formability and, therefore, this property can be effectively used to avoid the initiation of early strain localization.Prediction of Plastic Instability in Sheet Metals During Forming Processes Using the Loss of Ellipticity Approach
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/11915
Prediction of Plastic Instability in Sheet Metals During Forming Processes Using the Loss of Ellipticity Approach
AKPAMA, Holanyo K.; BEN BETTAIEB, Mohamed; ABED-MERAIM, Farid
The prediction of plastic instability in sheet metals during forming processes represents nowadays an ambitious challenge. To reach this goal, a new numerical approach, based on the loss of ellipticity criterion, is proposed in the present contribution. A polycrystalline model is implemented as a user-material subroutine into the ABAQUS/Implicit finite element (FE) code. The polycrystalline constitutive model is assigned to each integration point of the FE mesh. To derive the mechanical behavior of this polycrystalline aggregate from the behavior of its microscopic constituents, the multiscale self-consistent scheme is used. The mechanical behavior of the single crystals is described by a finite strain rateindependent constitutive framework, where the Schmid law is used to model the plastic flow. The condition of loss of ellipticity at the macroscale is used as plastic instability criterion in the FE modeling. This numerical approach, which couples the FE method with the self-consistent scheme, is used to simulate a deep drawing process, and the above criterion is used to predict the formability limit of the studied sheets during this operation.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/119152017-01-01T00:00:00ZAKPAMA, Holanyo K.BEN BETTAIEB, MohamedABED-MERAIM, FaridThe prediction of plastic instability in sheet metals during forming processes represents nowadays an ambitious challenge. To reach this goal, a new numerical approach, based on the loss of ellipticity criterion, is proposed in the present contribution. A polycrystalline model is implemented as a user-material subroutine into the ABAQUS/Implicit finite element (FE) code. The polycrystalline constitutive model is assigned to each integration point of the FE mesh. To derive the mechanical behavior of this polycrystalline aggregate from the behavior of its microscopic constituents, the multiscale self-consistent scheme is used. The mechanical behavior of the single crystals is described by a finite strain rateindependent constitutive framework, where the Schmid law is used to model the plastic flow. The condition of loss of ellipticity at the macroscale is used as plastic instability criterion in the FE modeling. This numerical approach, which couples the FE method with the self-consistent scheme, is used to simulate a deep drawing process, and the above criterion is used to predict the formability limit of the studied sheets during this operation.Investigation of localized necking in substrate-supported metal layers: comparison of bifurcation and imperfection analyses
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10047
Investigation of localized necking in substrate-supported metal layers: comparison of bifurcation and imperfection analyses
BEN BETTAIEB, Mohamed; ABED-MERAIM, Farid
Localized necking is often considered as precursor to failure in metal components. In modern technologies, functional components (e.g., in flexible electronic devices) may be affected by this necking phenomenon, and to avoid the occurrence of strain localization, elastomer substrates are bonded to the metal layers. This paper proposes an investigation of the development of localized necking in both freestanding metal layers and elastomer/metal bilayers. Finite strain versions of both rigid–plastic flow theory and deformation theory of plasticity are employed to model the mechanical response of the metal layer. For the elastomer, a neo-Hookean constitutive law is considered. Localized necking is predicted using both bifurcation (whenever possible) and Marciniak–Kuczynski analyses. A variety of numerical results are presented, which pertain to the prediction of localized necking in freestanding metal layers and metal/substrate bilayers. The effects of the constitutive framework and the presence of an elastomer substrate on strain localization predictions have been specifically highlighted. It is demonstrated that the addition of an elastomer layer can retard significantly the occurrence of localized necking. It is also demonstrated that the results of the Marciniak–Kuczynski analysis tend towards the bifurcation predictions in the limit of a vanishing size for the geometric imperfection.
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/100472015-01-01T00:00:00ZBEN BETTAIEB, MohamedABED-MERAIM, FaridLocalized necking is often considered as precursor to failure in metal components. In modern technologies, functional components (e.g., in flexible electronic devices) may be affected by this necking phenomenon, and to avoid the occurrence of strain localization, elastomer substrates are bonded to the metal layers. This paper proposes an investigation of the development of localized necking in both freestanding metal layers and elastomer/metal bilayers. Finite strain versions of both rigid–plastic flow theory and deformation theory of plasticity are employed to model the mechanical response of the metal layer. For the elastomer, a neo-Hookean constitutive law is considered. Localized necking is predicted using both bifurcation (whenever possible) and Marciniak–Kuczynski analyses. A variety of numerical results are presented, which pertain to the prediction of localized necking in freestanding metal layers and metal/substrate bilayers. The effects of the constitutive framework and the presence of an elastomer substrate on strain localization predictions have been specifically highlighted. It is demonstrated that the addition of an elastomer layer can retard significantly the occurrence of localized necking. It is also demonstrated that the results of the Marciniak–Kuczynski analysis tend towards the bifurcation predictions in the limit of a vanishing size for the geometric imperfection.