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http://hdl.handle.net/10985/24241
Impact of Grid-forming Converter on Electromechanical Oscillations
BOUKHENFOUF, Johan; GUILLAUD, Xavier; BRUYERE, Antoine
As distributed generation increases, it is essential to study its impact on the grid dynamics. This paper focuses on understanding the influence of the emergent technology of Grid-Forming converters on the electromechanical oscillations of the power system. Interactions among synchronous generators and gridforming converters are analyzed thanks to simplified models. These highlight the similarities of both sources, and thus, explain the participation of the converter in the oscillation. They also revealed the differences that justify the damping effect of Grid-Forming converter. This conclusion, obtained with simplified models, is validated with a small-signal stability analysis of a detailed model in the dq0-frame.
Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/242412023-06-01T00:00:00ZBOUKHENFOUF, JohanGUILLAUD, XavierBRUYERE, AntoineAs distributed generation increases, it is essential to study its impact on the grid dynamics. This paper focuses on understanding the influence of the emergent technology of Grid-Forming converters on the electromechanical oscillations of the power system. Interactions among synchronous generators and gridforming converters are analyzed thanks to simplified models. These highlight the similarities of both sources, and thus, explain the participation of the converter in the oscillation. They also revealed the differences that justify the damping effect of Grid-Forming converter. This conclusion, obtained with simplified models, is validated with a small-signal stability analysis of a detailed model in the dq0-frame.Modeling and Control of a 7-phase Claw-pole Starter-alternator for a Micro-hybrid Automotive Application
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9263
Modeling and Control of a 7-phase Claw-pole Starter-alternator for a Micro-hybrid Automotive Application
BRUYERE, Antoine; BOUSCAYROL, Alain; CHARLEY, Jacques; LOCMENT, Fabrice; DUBUS, Jean-Marc; MIPO, Jean-Claude; SEMAIL, Eric
This paper deals with the modeling and the control of a new high power 12V Integrated Starter Alternator (ISA). This system is used to bring micro-hybrid functions to standard Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles. The drive is composed of a seven-phase synchronous claw-pole machine with separate excitation, supplied with a seven-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) designed for low voltage and high current. The system is modeled in a generalized Concordia frame and a graphical description is used to highlight energetic properties of such a complex system. A control scheme is then deduced from this graphical description. Two controls are achieved in generator mode and compared: one is using the VSI in a square-wave mode, the other in a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) mode. Experimental results are provided.
Tue, 01 Jan 2008 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/92632008-01-01T00:00:00ZBRUYERE, AntoineBOUSCAYROL, AlainCHARLEY, JacquesLOCMENT, FabriceDUBUS, Jean-MarcMIPO, Jean-ClaudeSEMAIL, EricThis paper deals with the modeling and the control of a new high power 12V Integrated Starter Alternator (ISA). This system is used to bring micro-hybrid functions to standard Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles. The drive is composed of a seven-phase synchronous claw-pole machine with separate excitation, supplied with a seven-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) designed for low voltage and high current. The system is modeled in a generalized Concordia frame and a graphical description is used to highlight energetic properties of such a complex system. A control scheme is then deduced from this graphical description. Two controls are achieved in generator mode and compared: one is using the VSI in a square-wave mode, the other in a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) mode. Experimental results are provided.Identification of sensitive R-L parameters of a Multi-phase drive by a vector control
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9256
Identification of sensitive R-L parameters of a Multi-phase drive by a vector control
BRUYERE, Antoine; BOUSCAYROL, Alain; DUBUS, Jean-Marc; MIPO, Jean-Claude; SEMAIL, Eric
This paper focuses on an experimental method to determine the electric parameters of a seven-phase low-voltage multiphase drive. The drive is a belt driven starter-alternator for powerful cars with Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEV) functions. The resistive and inductive parameters are necessary to obtain the six characteristic time constants of the control modeling. Classical direct measurements lead to imprecise results because of very low values for the windings electric resistance (a few mΩ) and inductance (a few μH). Effects of the imprecision on the measurements are all the more important that time constants are obtained by a ratio of cyclic inductances by resistance, with cyclic inductances being a linear combination of seven measured inductances. The methodology for identification detailed in this paper is based on a stator current vector control, in a multi-reference frame. This methodology allows us to get directly these time constants. Numerous measurements allow the robustness of the method to be evaluated
Tue, 01 Jan 2008 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/92562008-01-01T00:00:00ZBRUYERE, AntoineBOUSCAYROL, AlainDUBUS, Jean-MarcMIPO, Jean-ClaudeSEMAIL, EricThis paper focuses on an experimental method to determine the electric parameters of a seven-phase low-voltage multiphase drive. The drive is a belt driven starter-alternator for powerful cars with Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEV) functions. The resistive and inductive parameters are necessary to obtain the six characteristic time constants of the control modeling. Classical direct measurements lead to imprecise results because of very low values for the windings electric resistance (a few mΩ) and inductance (a few μH). Effects of the imprecision on the measurements are all the more important that time constants are obtained by a ratio of cyclic inductances by resistance, with cyclic inductances being a linear combination of seven measured inductances. The methodology for identification detailed in this paper is based on a stator current vector control, in a multi-reference frame. This methodology allows us to get directly these time constants. Numerous measurements allow the robustness of the method to be evaluatedEffect of Using PLL-Based Grid-Forming Control on Active Power Dynamics Under Various SCR
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/16655
Effect of Using PLL-Based Grid-Forming Control on Active Power Dynamics Under Various SCR
ROKROK, Ebrahim; QORIA, Taoufik; BRUYERE, Antoine; BRUNO, François; GUILLAUD, X.
This paper investigates the effect of using phaselocked loop (PLL) on the performance of a grid-forming controlled converter. Usually, a grid-forming controlled converter operates without dedicated PLL. It is shown that in this case, the active power dominant dynamics are highly dependent to the grid short circuit ratio (SCR). In case of using PLL, the obtained results illustrate that the SCR has a negligible effect on the dynamic behavior of the system. Moreover, the power converter will not participate to the frequency regulation anymore; therefore, the converter response time can be adjusted independently to the choice of the droop control gain, which is not possible without PLL. A simple equivalent model is presented which gives a physical explanation of these features.
Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/166552019-01-01T00:00:00ZROKROK, EbrahimQORIA, TaoufikBRUYERE, AntoineBRUNO, FrançoisGUILLAUD, X.This paper investigates the effect of using phaselocked loop (PLL) on the performance of a grid-forming controlled converter. Usually, a grid-forming controlled converter operates without dedicated PLL. It is shown that in this case, the active power dominant dynamics are highly dependent to the grid short circuit ratio (SCR). In case of using PLL, the obtained results illustrate that the SCR has a negligible effect on the dynamic behavior of the system. Moreover, the power converter will not participate to the frequency regulation anymore; therefore, the converter response time can be adjusted independently to the choice of the droop control gain, which is not possible without PLL. A simple equivalent model is presented which gives a physical explanation of these features.Identification of a 7-phase claw-pole starter-alternator for a micro-hybrid automotive application
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9255
Identification of a 7-phase claw-pole starter-alternator for a micro-hybrid automotive application
BRUYERE, Antoine; HENNERON, Thomas; SEMAIL, Eric; LOCMENT, Fabrice; BOUSCAYROL, Alain; DUBUS, Jean-Marc; MIPO, Jean-Claude
This paper deals with the identification of a new high power starter-alternator system, using both: a Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling and an experimental vector control. The drive is composed of a synchronous 7-phase claw-pole machine supplied with a low voltage / high current Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). This structure needs specific approaches to plan its electrical and mechanical behaviors and to identify the parameters needed for control purpose. At first, a Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling of the machine is presented. It is used for the predetermination of the electromotive forces and of the torque. Experimental results are in good accordance with numerical results. In a second part, resistive and inductive parameters of the drive are determined by an original experimental approach that takes into account each component of the drive: the battery, the VSI and the machine.
Tue, 01 Jan 2008 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/92552008-01-01T00:00:00ZBRUYERE, AntoineHENNERON, ThomasSEMAIL, EricLOCMENT, FabriceBOUSCAYROL, AlainDUBUS, Jean-MarcMIPO, Jean-ClaudeThis paper deals with the identification of a new high power starter-alternator system, using both: a Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling and an experimental vector control. The drive is composed of a synchronous 7-phase claw-pole machine supplied with a low voltage / high current Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). This structure needs specific approaches to plan its electrical and mechanical behaviors and to identify the parameters needed for control purpose. At first, a Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling of the machine is presented. It is used for the predetermination of the electromotive forces and of the torque. Experimental results are in good accordance with numerical results. In a second part, resistive and inductive parameters of the drive are determined by an original experimental approach that takes into account each component of the drive: the battery, the VSI and the machine.A Multiphase Traction/Fast-Battery-Charger Drive for Electric or Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6750
A Multiphase Traction/Fast-Battery-Charger Drive for Electric or Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles
SANDULESCU, Paul; BRUYERE, Antoine; BOUCHEZ, Boris; DE SOUSA, Luis; SEMAIL, Eric; KESTELYN, Xavier
For Electric Vehicles (EV), the charger is one of the main technical and economical weaknesses. This paper focuses on an original electric drive [1]-[3] dedicated to the vehicle traction and configurable as a battery charger without need of additional components. This cheap solution can outfit either electric or plug-in hybrid automotive vehicles, without needing additional mass and volume dedicated to the charger. Moreover, it allows a high charging power, for short duration charge cycles. However, this solution needs specific cares concerning the electrical machine control. This paper deals with the control of this drive [1], focusing on traction mode. In introduction, a review is done about topologies of combined on-board chargers. Then, the studied topology is introduced; using a 3-phase brushless machine supplied with a 6-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). A model for its control is defined in the generalized Concordia frame, considering the traction mode. Then, an analysis of this model is established using a multimachine theory and a graphical formalism (the Energetic Macroscopic Representation denoted EMR). Using EMR, a description of energy flows shows specific control constraints. Indeed, numerical simulations illustrate the perturbations on the currents and the torque when controlling the machine with standard control methodologies. An improved control, deduced from the previous analysis, shows good performances, strongly reducing currents and torque ripples.
Fri, 01 Jan 2010 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/67502010-01-01T00:00:00ZSANDULESCU, PaulBRUYERE, AntoineBOUCHEZ, BorisDE SOUSA, LuisSEMAIL, EricKESTELYN, XavierFor Electric Vehicles (EV), the charger is one of the main technical and economical weaknesses. This paper focuses on an original electric drive [1]-[3] dedicated to the vehicle traction and configurable as a battery charger without need of additional components. This cheap solution can outfit either electric or plug-in hybrid automotive vehicles, without needing additional mass and volume dedicated to the charger. Moreover, it allows a high charging power, for short duration charge cycles. However, this solution needs specific cares concerning the electrical machine control. This paper deals with the control of this drive [1], focusing on traction mode. In introduction, a review is done about topologies of combined on-board chargers. Then, the studied topology is introduced; using a 3-phase brushless machine supplied with a 6-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). A model for its control is defined in the generalized Concordia frame, considering the traction mode. Then, an analysis of this model is established using a multimachine theory and a graphical formalism (the Energetic Macroscopic Representation denoted EMR). Using EMR, a description of energy flows shows specific control constraints. Indeed, numerical simulations illustrate the perturbations on the currents and the torque when controlling the machine with standard control methodologies. An improved control, deduced from the previous analysis, shows good performances, strongly reducing currents and torque ripples.Control Strategies for Open-End Winding Drives Operating in the Flux-Weakening Region
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/7420
Control Strategies for Open-End Winding Drives Operating in the Flux-Weakening Region
SANDULESCU, Paul; MEINGUET, Fabien; BRUYERE, Antoine; SEMAIL, Eric; KESTELYN, Xavier
This paper presents and compares control strategies for three-phase open-end winding drives operating in the flux-weakening region. A six-leg inverter with a single dc-link is associated with the machine in order to use a single energy source. With this topology, the zero-sequence circuit has to be considered since the zero-sequence current can circulate in the windings. Therefore, conventional over-modulation strategies are not appropriate when the machine enters in the flux-weakening region. A few solutions dealing with the zero-sequence circuit have been proposed in literature. They use a modified space vector modulation or a conventional modulation with additional voltage limitations. The paper describes the aforementioned strategies and then a new strategy is proposed. This new strategy takes into account the magnitudes and phase angles of the voltage harmonic components. This yields better voltage utilization in the dq frame. Furthermore, inverter saturation is avoided in the zero-sequence frame and therefore zero-sequence current control is maintained. Three methods are implemented on a test bed composed of a three-phase permanent-magnet synchronous machine, a six-leg inverter and a hybrid DSP/FPGA controller. Experimental results are presented and compared for all strategies. A performance analysis is conducted as regards the region of operation and the machine parameters.
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/74202014-01-01T00:00:00ZSANDULESCU, PaulMEINGUET, FabienBRUYERE, AntoineSEMAIL, EricKESTELYN, XavierThis paper presents and compares control strategies for three-phase open-end winding drives operating in the flux-weakening region. A six-leg inverter with a single dc-link is associated with the machine in order to use a single energy source. With this topology, the zero-sequence circuit has to be considered since the zero-sequence current can circulate in the windings. Therefore, conventional over-modulation strategies are not appropriate when the machine enters in the flux-weakening region. A few solutions dealing with the zero-sequence circuit have been proposed in literature. They use a modified space vector modulation or a conventional modulation with additional voltage limitations. The paper describes the aforementioned strategies and then a new strategy is proposed. This new strategy takes into account the magnitudes and phase angles of the voltage harmonic components. This yields better voltage utilization in the dq frame. Furthermore, inverter saturation is avoided in the zero-sequence frame and therefore zero-sequence current control is maintained. Three methods are implemented on a test bed composed of a three-phase permanent-magnet synchronous machine, a six-leg inverter and a hybrid DSP/FPGA controller. Experimental results are presented and compared for all strategies. A performance analysis is conducted as regards the region of operation and the machine parameters.Flux-weakening operation of open-end winding drive integrating a cost effective high-power charger
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6794
Flux-weakening operation of open-end winding drive integrating a cost effective high-power charger
SANDULESCU, Paul; MEINGUET, Fabien; BRUYERE, Antoine; SEMAIL, Eric; KESTELYN, Xavier
In this paper, a three-phase drive with a six-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) and an open-end winding Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (IPMSM) designed for the traction of an electric vehicle is studied in flux-weakening operation. The topology allows the functionality of a high power charger to be obtained, without adding any other supplementary power devices. On the other hand, since there are three independent currents, the control structure has to handle not only the two dq current components but also a zero-sequence current. If neglected, in comparison with wye-coupled three-phase drive, this zero-sequence component can cause a higher maximum peak value of the phase currents, additional stator Joule losses, torque ripple, inverter voltage saturation and IGBT oversizing. The proposed control strategy consists in adapting a conventional method used for wye-connected machines particularly in flux-weakening operation. This strategy allows the closed-loop control of the zero-sequence current to be maintained in the whole speed range and therefore inverter saturation is avoided. Simulations and experimental results are presented and analyzed.
Tue, 01 Jan 2013 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/67942013-01-01T00:00:00ZSANDULESCU, PaulMEINGUET, FabienBRUYERE, AntoineSEMAIL, EricKESTELYN, XavierIn this paper, a three-phase drive with a six-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) and an open-end winding Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (IPMSM) designed for the traction of an electric vehicle is studied in flux-weakening operation. The topology allows the functionality of a high power charger to be obtained, without adding any other supplementary power devices. On the other hand, since there are three independent currents, the control structure has to handle not only the two dq current components but also a zero-sequence current. If neglected, in comparison with wye-coupled three-phase drive, this zero-sequence component can cause a higher maximum peak value of the phase currents, additional stator Joule losses, torque ripple, inverter voltage saturation and IGBT oversizing. The proposed control strategy consists in adapting a conventional method used for wye-connected machines particularly in flux-weakening operation. This strategy allows the closed-loop control of the zero-sequence current to be maintained in the whole speed range and therefore inverter saturation is avoided. Simulations and experimental results are presented and analyzed.FPGA Implementation of a General Space Vector Approach on a 6-Leg Voltage Source Inverter
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6749
FPGA Implementation of a General Space Vector Approach on a 6-Leg Voltage Source Inverter
SANDULESCU, Paul; IDKHAJINE, Lahoucine; CENSE, Sébastien; COLAS, Frédéric; BRUYERE, Antoine; SEMAIL, Eric; KESTELYN, Xavier
A general algorithm of a Space Vector approach is implemented on a 6-leg VSI controlling a PM synchronous machine with three independent phases. In this last case, the necessity of controlling the zero-sequence current motivates the choice of a special family of vectors, different of this one used in Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) intersective strategy and in common Space Vector PWM (SVPWM). To preserve the parallelism of the algorithm and fulfill the execution time constraints, the implementation is made on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Comparisons with more classical 2-level and 3-level PWM are provided.
Sat, 01 Jan 2011 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/67492011-01-01T00:00:00ZSANDULESCU, PaulIDKHAJINE, LahoucineCENSE, SébastienCOLAS, FrédéricBRUYERE, AntoineSEMAIL, EricKESTELYN, XavierA general algorithm of a Space Vector approach is implemented on a 6-leg VSI controlling a PM synchronous machine with three independent phases. In this last case, the necessity of controlling the zero-sequence current motivates the choice of a special family of vectors, different of this one used in Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) intersective strategy and in common Space Vector PWM (SVPWM). To preserve the parallelism of the algorithm and fulfill the execution time constraints, the implementation is made on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Comparisons with more classical 2-level and 3-level PWM are provided.Procédé de commande d'un moteur électrique à 3 phases alimentée indépendamment
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6960
Procédé de commande d'un moteur électrique à 3 phases alimentée indépendamment
BRUYERE, Antoine; MEINGUET, Fabien; SANDULESCU, Paul; SEMAIL, Eric; KESTELYN, Xavier
Le système d’entraînement rotatif comporte : - une source de tension continue (102) ; - un moteur électrique (104) présentant un axe de rotation (A), et comportant des phases indépendantes (a, b, c) présentant des directions autour de 5 l’axe de rotation (A) ; - un onduleur (106) destiné à connecter chaque phase (a, b, c) à la source de tension continue (102) ; et - un dispositif de commande (110) destiné à fournir une commande à l’onduleur (106). Le dispositif de commande (110) comporte : - des moyens (118) de sélection de 10 formule, destinés à sélectionner une formule parmi des formules prédéterminées, chaque formule prédéterminée étant destinée à calculer soit une consigne de tension homopolaire, soit une consigne de courant homopolaire ; - des moyens (124) de détermination de consigne, destinés à appliquer la formule sélectionnée pour déterminer, suivant la formule sélectionnée, soit une consigne de tension homopolaire, 15 soit une consigne de courant homopolaire, et - des moyens (126) de détermination de commande, destinés à déterminer la commande de l’onduleur (106) à partir de la consigne déterminée.
Tue, 01 Jan 2013 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/69602013-01-01T00:00:00ZBRUYERE, AntoineMEINGUET, FabienSANDULESCU, PaulSEMAIL, EricKESTELYN, XavierLe système d’entraînement rotatif comporte : - une source de tension continue (102) ; - un moteur électrique (104) présentant un axe de rotation (A), et comportant des phases indépendantes (a, b, c) présentant des directions autour de 5 l’axe de rotation (A) ; - un onduleur (106) destiné à connecter chaque phase (a, b, c) à la source de tension continue (102) ; et - un dispositif de commande (110) destiné à fournir une commande à l’onduleur (106). Le dispositif de commande (110) comporte : - des moyens (118) de sélection de 10 formule, destinés à sélectionner une formule parmi des formules prédéterminées, chaque formule prédéterminée étant destinée à calculer soit une consigne de tension homopolaire, soit une consigne de courant homopolaire ; - des moyens (124) de détermination de consigne, destinés à appliquer la formule sélectionnée pour déterminer, suivant la formule sélectionnée, soit une consigne de tension homopolaire, 15 soit une consigne de courant homopolaire, et - des moyens (126) de détermination de commande, destinés à déterminer la commande de l’onduleur (106) à partir de la consigne déterminée.