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http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9195
Design methodology of a complex CKC mechanical joint with a representation energetic tool multi-Bond graph: application to the helicopter
BOUDON, Benjamin; MALBURET, François; CARMONA, Jean-Claude
Due to the operation of the rotor, the helicopter is subject to important vibration levels affecting namely the fatigue of the mechanical parts and the passenger comfort. Suspensions between the main gear box (MGB) and the fuselage help to filter theses problematic vibrations. Their design can be difficult since the filtering should be efficient for different types of external forces (pumping force and roll/pitch torque) which may appear during the flight. As passive solutions classically show their limits, intelligent active solutions are proposed so that the filtering can be adjusted according to the vibration sources. Such studies still suffer from a lack of tools and methods, firstly, necessary to the design of complex mechanical systems (due to their multi-phase multi-physics multi-interaction characteristic, ...) and secondly, to develop of an intelligent joint. The main objective of this chapter is to provide a methodology for designing and analyzing an intelligent joint using an energetic representation approach: the multibond graph (MBG). This method is applied here to a complex mechanical system with closed kinematic chains (CKC) which is the joint between the main gear box (MGB) and the aircraft structure of a helicopter. Firstly, the MBG method is analyzed. Secondly, after a brief state of art of the MGB-Fuselage joint, developments focus on the 2D and 3D modeling of the MGB-Fuselage joint with a MBG approach. The 20-sim software is used to conduct the simulation of bond graph. Finally, the MBG models results are presented, illustrating the potential of the MBG tool to predict the dynamic of a complex CKC mechanical system.
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/91952014-01-01T00:00:00ZBOUDON, BenjaminMALBURET, FrançoisCARMONA, Jean-ClaudeDue to the operation of the rotor, the helicopter is subject to important vibration levels affecting namely the fatigue of the mechanical parts and the passenger comfort. Suspensions between the main gear box (MGB) and the fuselage help to filter theses problematic vibrations. Their design can be difficult since the filtering should be efficient for different types of external forces (pumping force and roll/pitch torque) which may appear during the flight. As passive solutions classically show their limits, intelligent active solutions are proposed so that the filtering can be adjusted according to the vibration sources. Such studies still suffer from a lack of tools and methods, firstly, necessary to the design of complex mechanical systems (due to their multi-phase multi-physics multi-interaction characteristic, ...) and secondly, to develop of an intelligent joint. The main objective of this chapter is to provide a methodology for designing and analyzing an intelligent joint using an energetic representation approach: the multibond graph (MBG). This method is applied here to a complex mechanical system with closed kinematic chains (CKC) which is the joint between the main gear box (MGB) and the aircraft structure of a helicopter. Firstly, the MBG method is analyzed. Secondly, after a brief state of art of the MGB-Fuselage joint, developments focus on the 2D and 3D modeling of the MGB-Fuselage joint with a MBG approach. The 20-sim software is used to conduct the simulation of bond graph. Finally, the MBG models results are presented, illustrating the potential of the MBG tool to predict the dynamic of a complex CKC mechanical system.On a robust modeling of piezo-systems
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/8958
On a robust modeling of piezo-systems
CORBIER, Christophe; BOUKARI, Abdou Fadel; CARMONA, Jean-Claude; MARTINEZ, Victor Alvarado; MORARU, George; MALBURET, François
This paper proposes a new modeling approach which is experimentally validated on piezo-electric systems in order to provide a robust Black-box model for complex systems control. Industrial applications such as vibration control in machining and active suspension in transportation should be concerned by the results presented here. Generally one uses physical based approaches. These are interesting as long as the user cares about the nature of the system. However, sometimes complex phenomena occur in the system while there is not sufficient expertise to explain them. Therefore, we adopt identification methods to achieve the modeling task. Since the microdisplacements of the piezo-system sometimes generate corrupted data named observation outliers leading to large estimation errors, we propose a parameterized robust estimation criterion based on a mixed L2 – L1 norm with an extended range of a scaling factor to tackle efficiently these outliers. This choice is motivated by the high sensitivity of least-squares methods to the large estimation errors. Therefore, the role of the L1 -norm is to make the L2 -estimator more robust. Experimental results are presented and discussed.
Sun, 01 Jan 2012 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/89582012-01-01T00:00:00ZCORBIER, ChristopheBOUKARI, Abdou FadelCARMONA, Jean-ClaudeMARTINEZ, Victor AlvaradoMORARU, GeorgeMALBURET, FrançoisThis paper proposes a new modeling approach which is experimentally validated on piezo-electric systems in order to provide a robust Black-box model for complex systems control. Industrial applications such as vibration control in machining and active suspension in transportation should be concerned by the results presented here. Generally one uses physical based approaches. These are interesting as long as the user cares about the nature of the system. However, sometimes complex phenomena occur in the system while there is not sufficient expertise to explain them. Therefore, we adopt identification methods to achieve the modeling task. Since the microdisplacements of the piezo-system sometimes generate corrupted data named observation outliers leading to large estimation errors, we propose a parameterized robust estimation criterion based on a mixed L2 – L1 norm with an extended range of a scaling factor to tackle efficiently these outliers. This choice is motivated by the high sensitivity of least-squares methods to the large estimation errors. Therefore, the role of the L1 -norm is to make the L2 -estimator more robust. Experimental results are presented and discussed.Simulation of a helicopter’s main gearbox semiactive suspension with bond graphs
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/11474
Simulation of a helicopter’s main gearbox semiactive suspension with bond graphs
MALBURET, François; CARMONA, Jean-Claude; BOUDON, Benjamin
This paper presents a bond graph model of a helicopter’s semiactive suspension and the associated simulations. The structural and modular approach proposed with bond graph permits a systematic modeling of mechatronic multibody systems. This approach was carried out thanks to the use of the singular perturbation method, which is a variant of penalty formulation. The model is then built as an assembly of components or modules (rigid bodies and compliant kinematic joints) by following the structure of the actual system. The bond graph model of the passive suspension with fixed flapping masses has been verified with another multibody tool for three different excitations (pumping, roll, and yaw). Next, the passive model, augmented with electrical actuators and controllers, is called the semiactive suspension model. Simulations on the semiactive suspension model have been conducted.
Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/114742016-01-01T00:00:00ZMALBURET, FrançoisCARMONA, Jean-ClaudeBOUDON, BenjaminThis paper presents a bond graph model of a helicopter’s semiactive suspension and the associated simulations. The structural and modular approach proposed with bond graph permits a systematic modeling of mechatronic multibody systems. This approach was carried out thanks to the use of the singular perturbation method, which is a variant of penalty formulation. The model is then built as an assembly of components or modules (rigid bodies and compliant kinematic joints) by following the structure of the actual system. The bond graph model of the passive suspension with fixed flapping masses has been verified with another multibody tool for three different excitations (pumping, roll, and yaw). Next, the passive model, augmented with electrical actuators and controllers, is called the semiactive suspension model. Simulations on the semiactive suspension model have been conducted.Bond Graph Modeling and Simulation of a Vibration Absorber System in Helicopters
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/11475
Bond Graph Modeling and Simulation of a Vibration Absorber System in Helicopters
MALBURET, François; CARMONA, Jean-Claude; BOUDON, Benjamin
n the last 20 years, computer science has considerably progressed and there has been a resurgence of interest in bond graphs. The evolution of bond graph software has allowed for the full exploitation of its graphical aspects and for its simulation directly from the modeling environment without the need for the modeler to derive the associated dynamic equations. However, within this last decade, few simulations of complex multibody systems modeled with bond graphs have been conducted directly from a graphic software platform. In this context, the objective of this chapter is to show how bond graphs can be used to model and simulate a complex mechatronic system with bond graph simulation software. The multibody system studied in this chapter is a helicopter’s vibration absorber suspension. The structural and modular approach allowed by bond graphs permits a systematic modeling of mechatronic multibody systems. The model is then built as an assembly of components or modules (rigid bodies and compliant kinematic joints) by following the structure of the actual system. This approach was carried out with the use of the parasitic elements method. The bond graph model of the suspension has been verified with another multibody tool for three different excitations (pumping, roll, and yaw). The first part of this chapter will be dedicated to giving the reader an overview of the modeling of multibody systems with bond graphs. BG models of the rigid body and all the basic kinematic joints will be presented. The main existing methods (zero-causal paths ZCPs, Lagrange multipliers, and singular perturbation) for modeling and carrying out simulations of multibody systems will be recalled. The second part of this chapter will present a vector bond graph (also called multibond graph) model of a helicopter’s antivibratory system and the associated simulations. This system is a specific suspension of a helicopter, which filters the vibration coming from the rotor to the fuselage. It is a complex multibody system with four closed kinematic chains (CKC). The dynamic equations of such a CKC system are differential-algebraic equation systems (DAE) that are often difficult to treat and which require specific solving methods. The intention of writing this chapter was to give to bond graph practitioners a detailed and comprehensive method so as to model and conduct simulations of complex multibody systems directly from a bond graph modeling interface.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/114752017-01-01T00:00:00ZMALBURET, FrançoisCARMONA, Jean-ClaudeBOUDON, Benjaminn the last 20 years, computer science has considerably progressed and there has been a resurgence of interest in bond graphs. The evolution of bond graph software has allowed for the full exploitation of its graphical aspects and for its simulation directly from the modeling environment without the need for the modeler to derive the associated dynamic equations. However, within this last decade, few simulations of complex multibody systems modeled with bond graphs have been conducted directly from a graphic software platform. In this context, the objective of this chapter is to show how bond graphs can be used to model and simulate a complex mechatronic system with bond graph simulation software. The multibody system studied in this chapter is a helicopter’s vibration absorber suspension. The structural and modular approach allowed by bond graphs permits a systematic modeling of mechatronic multibody systems. The model is then built as an assembly of components or modules (rigid bodies and compliant kinematic joints) by following the structure of the actual system. This approach was carried out with the use of the parasitic elements method. The bond graph model of the suspension has been verified with another multibody tool for three different excitations (pumping, roll, and yaw). The first part of this chapter will be dedicated to giving the reader an overview of the modeling of multibody systems with bond graphs. BG models of the rigid body and all the basic kinematic joints will be presented. The main existing methods (zero-causal paths ZCPs, Lagrange multipliers, and singular perturbation) for modeling and carrying out simulations of multibody systems will be recalled. The second part of this chapter will present a vector bond graph (also called multibond graph) model of a helicopter’s antivibratory system and the associated simulations. This system is a specific suspension of a helicopter, which filters the vibration coming from the rotor to the fuselage. It is a complex multibody system with four closed kinematic chains (CKC). The dynamic equations of such a CKC system are differential-algebraic equation systems (DAE) that are often difficult to treat and which require specific solving methods. The intention of writing this chapter was to give to bond graph practitioners a detailed and comprehensive method so as to model and conduct simulations of complex multibody systems directly from a bond graph modeling interface.Control loads reduction through control system architecture optimization – application to a conventional rotor on compound helicopters
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9043
Control loads reduction through control system architecture optimization – application to a conventional rotor on compound helicopters
PARIS, Manuel; EGLIN, Paul; MALBURET, François; CARMONA, Jean-Claude
A kinematic study of a helicopter main rotor control system is carried out to investigate loads in servo actuators and non-rotating scissors during high speed and high load factors maneuvers. The kinematic model is then used to optimize the servo-actuators placement and pre-inclination in order to minimize static and dynamic loads in the three servo-actuators and in the non-rotating scissors. The inputs for the model (blade pitch link loads and pilot input to trim the aircraft) are taken from flight tests measurements, current rotor computations being unable to predict blade root torsion moments vs azimuth with enough accuracy. The analysis is based on X3 demonstrator flight tests, which showed high control system loads that used to reduce flight envelope during the first flight test campaign. Flight tests measurements are used to validate the kinematic model used for the optimization. Computations made for X3 case at 220kts showed a reduction of 40% of maximum static load and 45% of maximum dynamic load on servo-actuators compared to the initial placement of the servo actuators. With appropriate servo actuators pre-inclination, dynamic loads in the non-rotating scissors are decreased by 95% at high speed trim flight. This paper shows how it is possible to keep a conventional rotor control system for compound helicopters. The optimization algorithm presented in this paper can be used for conventional helicopters to reduce loads in the control system and then limit command reinjection because of control system flexibility, and on compound helicopters to expand the flight envelope and to remove control system loads as the first limit factors at high speed.
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/90432014-01-01T00:00:00ZPARIS, ManuelEGLIN, PaulMALBURET, FrançoisCARMONA, Jean-ClaudeA kinematic study of a helicopter main rotor control system is carried out to investigate loads in servo actuators and non-rotating scissors during high speed and high load factors maneuvers. The kinematic model is then used to optimize the servo-actuators placement and pre-inclination in order to minimize static and dynamic loads in the three servo-actuators and in the non-rotating scissors. The inputs for the model (blade pitch link loads and pilot input to trim the aircraft) are taken from flight tests measurements, current rotor computations being unable to predict blade root torsion moments vs azimuth with enough accuracy. The analysis is based on X3 demonstrator flight tests, which showed high control system loads that used to reduce flight envelope during the first flight test campaign. Flight tests measurements are used to validate the kinematic model used for the optimization. Computations made for X3 case at 220kts showed a reduction of 40% of maximum static load and 45% of maximum dynamic load on servo-actuators compared to the initial placement of the servo actuators. With appropriate servo actuators pre-inclination, dynamic loads in the non-rotating scissors are decreased by 95% at high speed trim flight. This paper shows how it is possible to keep a conventional rotor control system for compound helicopters. The optimization algorithm presented in this paper can be used for conventional helicopters to reduce loads in the control system and then limit command reinjection because of control system flexibility, and on compound helicopters to expand the flight envelope and to remove control system loads as the first limit factors at high speed.Maximum power point tracking using P&O control optimized by a neural network approach: a good compromise between accuracy and complexity
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9778
Maximum power point tracking using P&O control optimized by a neural network approach: a good compromise between accuracy and complexity
SAHNOUN, Mohamed Aymen; ROMERO UGALDE, Hector; CARMONA, Jean-Claude; GOMAND, Julien
In the field of power optimization of photovoltaic panels (PV), there exist many maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control algorithms, such as: the perturb and observe (P&O) one, the algorithms based on fuzzy logic and the ones using a neural network approaches. Among these MPPT control algorithms, P&O is one of the most widely used due to its simplicity of implementation. However, the major drawback of this kind of algorithm is the lack of accuracy due to oscillations around the PPM. Conversely, MPPT control using neural networks have shown to be a very efficient solution in term of accuracy. However, this approach remains complex. In this paper we propose an original optimization of the P&O MPPT control with a neural network algorithm leading to a significant reduction of the computational cost required to train it, ensuring a good compromise between accuracy and complexity. The algorithm has been applied to the models of two different types of solar panels, which have been experimentally validated.
Tue, 01 Jan 2013 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/97782013-01-01T00:00:00ZSAHNOUN, Mohamed AymenROMERO UGALDE, HectorCARMONA, Jean-ClaudeGOMAND, JulienIn the field of power optimization of photovoltaic panels (PV), there exist many maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control algorithms, such as: the perturb and observe (P&O) one, the algorithms based on fuzzy logic and the ones using a neural network approaches. Among these MPPT control algorithms, P&O is one of the most widely used due to its simplicity of implementation. However, the major drawback of this kind of algorithm is the lack of accuracy due to oscillations around the PPM. Conversely, MPPT control using neural networks have shown to be a very efficient solution in term of accuracy. However, this approach remains complex. In this paper we propose an original optimization of the P&O MPPT control with a neural network algorithm leading to a significant reduction of the computational cost required to train it, ensuring a good compromise between accuracy and complexity. The algorithm has been applied to the models of two different types of solar panels, which have been experimentally validated.Nouvelle approche pour l’optimisation de systèmes mécaniques en vue de la récupération d'énergie vibratoire
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9008
Nouvelle approche pour l’optimisation de systèmes mécaniques en vue de la récupération d'énergie vibratoire
BOUDON, Benjamin; MALBURET, François; CARMONA, Jean-Claude
La récupération d’énergie à partir des vibrations mécaniques est une préoccupation importante à l’heure actuelle car elle permet de rendre autonome les systèmes de surveillance vibratoire ou de contrôle de vibration (semi-actif). Cet article se positionne sur le thème de la récupération d’énergie vibratoire et plus particulièrement, dans la phase de conception d’un tel système, lors de l’étape de la « transformation et l’optimisation mécanique ». Dans ce sens, l’article propose une méthode d’aide à la conception des résonateurs équipant les systèmes de récupération. Cette méthode utilise les fonctions habituelles des interfaces (débattement, isolation) plus une fonction récupération d’énergie. La démarche intègre une étape supplémentaire aux démarches classiques de mise sous forme adimensionnelle de ces fonctions afin de minimiser le nombre de paramètres de plus haut niveau à utiliser lors d’une optimisation globale.
Tue, 01 Jan 2013 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/90082013-01-01T00:00:00ZBOUDON, BenjaminMALBURET, FrançoisCARMONA, Jean-ClaudeLa récupération d’énergie à partir des vibrations mécaniques est une préoccupation importante à l’heure actuelle car elle permet de rendre autonome les systèmes de surveillance vibratoire ou de contrôle de vibration (semi-actif). Cet article se positionne sur le thème de la récupération d’énergie vibratoire et plus particulièrement, dans la phase de conception d’un tel système, lors de l’étape de la « transformation et l’optimisation mécanique ». Dans ce sens, l’article propose une méthode d’aide à la conception des résonateurs équipant les systèmes de récupération. Cette méthode utilise les fonctions habituelles des interfaces (débattement, isolation) plus une fonction récupération d’énergie. La démarche intègre une étape supplémentaire aux démarches classiques de mise sous forme adimensionnelle de ces fonctions afin de minimiser le nombre de paramètres de plus haut niveau à utiliser lors d’une optimisation globale.