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http://hdl.handle.net/10985/18608
Weakly nonlinear optimal perturbations
PRALITS, Jan O.; BOTTARO, Alessandro; CHERUBINI, Stefania
A simple approach is described for computing spatially extended, weakly nonlinear optimal disturbances, suitable for maintaining a disturbance-regeneration cycle in a simple shear flow. Weakly nonlinear optimals, computed over a short time interval for the expansion used to remain tenable, are oblique waves which display a shorter streamwise and a longer spanwise wavelength than their linear counterparts. Threshold values of the initial excitation energy, separating the region of damped waves from that where disturbances grow without bounds, are found. Weakly nonlinear optimal solutions of varying initial amplitudes are then fed as initial conditions into direct numerical simulations of the Navier–Stokes equations and it is shown that the weakly nonlinear model permits the identification of flow states which cause rapid breakdown to turbulence.
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/186082015-01-01T00:00:00ZPRALITS, Jan O.BOTTARO, AlessandroCHERUBINI, StefaniaA simple approach is described for computing spatially extended, weakly nonlinear optimal disturbances, suitable for maintaining a disturbance-regeneration cycle in a simple shear flow. Weakly nonlinear optimals, computed over a short time interval for the expansion used to remain tenable, are oblique waves which display a shorter streamwise and a longer spanwise wavelength than their linear counterparts. Threshold values of the initial excitation energy, separating the region of damped waves from that where disturbances grow without bounds, are found. Weakly nonlinear optimal solutions of varying initial amplitudes are then fed as initial conditions into direct numerical simulations of the Navier–Stokes equations and it is shown that the weakly nonlinear model permits the identification of flow states which cause rapid breakdown to turbulence.Permeability models affecting nonlinear stability in the asymptotic suction boundary layer: the Forchheimer versus the Darcy model
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/18610
Permeability models affecting nonlinear stability in the asymptotic suction boundary layer: the Forchheimer versus the Darcy model
WEDIN, Håkan; CHERUBINI, Stefania
The asymptotic suction boundary layer (ASBL) is used for studying two permeability models, namely the Darcy and the Forchheimer model, the latter being more physically correct according to the literature. The term that defines the two apart is a function of the non-Darcian wall permeability ${\hat{K}}_{2}$ and of the wall suction ${\hat{V}}_{0}$, whereas the Darcian wall permeability ${\hat{K}}_{1}$ is common to the two models. The underlying interest of the study lies in the field of transition to turbulence where focus is put on two-dimensional nonlinear traveling waves (TWs) and their three-dimensional linear stability. Following a previous study by Wedin et al (2015 Phys. Rev. E 92 013022), where only the Darcy model was considered, the present work aims at comparing the two models, assessing where in the parameter space they cease to produce the same results. For low values of ${\hat{K}}_{1}$ both models produce almost identical TW solutions. However, when both increasing the suction ${\hat{V}}_{0}$ to sufficiently high amplitudes (i.e. lowering the Reynolds number Re, based on the displacement thickness) and using large values of the wall porosity, differences are observed. In terms of the non-dimensional Darcian wall permeability parameter, a, strong differences in the overall shape of the bifurcation curves are observed for $a\gtrsim 0.70$, with the emergence of a new family of solutions at Re lower than 100. For these large values of a, a Forchheimer number ${{Fo}}_{\max }\gtrsim 0.5$ is found, where Fo expresses the ratio between the kinetic and viscous forces acting on the porous wall. Moreover, the minimum Reynolds number, ${{Re}}_{g}$, for which the Navier–Stokes equations allow for nonlinear solutions, decreases for increasing values of a. Fixing the streamwise wavenumber to α = 0.154, as used in the study by Wedin et al referenced above, we find that ${{Re}}_{g}$ is lowered from Re ≈ 3000 for zero permeability, to below 50 for a = 0.80 for both permeability models. Finally, the stability of the TW solutions is assessed using a three-dimensional linearized direct numerical simulation (DNS). Low-frequency unstable modes are found for both permeability models; however, the Darcy model is found to overpredict the growth rate, and underpredict the streamwise extension of the most unstable mode. These results indicate that a careful choice of the underlying permeability model is crucial for accurately studying the transition to turbulence of boundary-layer flows over porous walls.
Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/186102016-01-01T00:00:00ZWEDIN, HåkanCHERUBINI, StefaniaThe asymptotic suction boundary layer (ASBL) is used for studying two permeability models, namely the Darcy and the Forchheimer model, the latter being more physically correct according to the literature. The term that defines the two apart is a function of the non-Darcian wall permeability ${\hat{K}}_{2}$ and of the wall suction ${\hat{V}}_{0}$, whereas the Darcian wall permeability ${\hat{K}}_{1}$ is common to the two models. The underlying interest of the study lies in the field of transition to turbulence where focus is put on two-dimensional nonlinear traveling waves (TWs) and their three-dimensional linear stability. Following a previous study by Wedin et al (2015 Phys. Rev. E 92 013022), where only the Darcy model was considered, the present work aims at comparing the two models, assessing where in the parameter space they cease to produce the same results. For low values of ${\hat{K}}_{1}$ both models produce almost identical TW solutions. However, when both increasing the suction ${\hat{V}}_{0}$ to sufficiently high amplitudes (i.e. lowering the Reynolds number Re, based on the displacement thickness) and using large values of the wall porosity, differences are observed. In terms of the non-dimensional Darcian wall permeability parameter, a, strong differences in the overall shape of the bifurcation curves are observed for $a\gtrsim 0.70$, with the emergence of a new family of solutions at Re lower than 100. For these large values of a, a Forchheimer number ${{Fo}}_{\max }\gtrsim 0.5$ is found, where Fo expresses the ratio between the kinetic and viscous forces acting on the porous wall. Moreover, the minimum Reynolds number, ${{Re}}_{g}$, for which the Navier–Stokes equations allow for nonlinear solutions, decreases for increasing values of a. Fixing the streamwise wavenumber to α = 0.154, as used in the study by Wedin et al referenced above, we find that ${{Re}}_{g}$ is lowered from Re ≈ 3000 for zero permeability, to below 50 for a = 0.80 for both permeability models. Finally, the stability of the TW solutions is assessed using a three-dimensional linearized direct numerical simulation (DNS). Low-frequency unstable modes are found for both permeability models; however, the Darcy model is found to overpredict the growth rate, and underpredict the streamwise extension of the most unstable mode. These results indicate that a careful choice of the underlying permeability model is crucial for accurately studying the transition to turbulence of boundary-layer flows over porous walls.Optimal perturbations in boundary layer flows over rough surfaces
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9013
Optimal perturbations in boundary layer flows over rough surfaces
CHERUBINI, Stefania; DE TULLIO, Marco; DE PALMA, Pietro; PASCAZIO, Giuseppe
This work provides a three-dimensional energy optimization analysis, looking for perturbations inducing the largest energy growth at a finite time in a boundary-layer flow in the presence of roughness elements. The immersed boundary technique has been coupled with a Lagrangian optimization in a three-dimensional framework. Four roughness elements with different heights have been studied, inducing amplification mechanisms that bypass the asymptotical growth of Tollmien-Schlichting waves. The results show that even very small roughness elements, inducing only a weak deformation of the base flow, can strongly localize the optimal disturbance. Moreover, the highest value of the energy gain is obtained for a varicose perturbation. This result demonstrates the relevance of varicose instabilities for such a flow and shows a different behavior with respect to the secondary instability theory of boundary layer streaks.
Tue, 01 Jan 2013 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/90132013-01-01T00:00:00ZCHERUBINI, StefaniaDE TULLIO, MarcoDE PALMA, PietroPASCAZIO, GiuseppeThis work provides a three-dimensional energy optimization analysis, looking for perturbations inducing the largest energy growth at a finite time in a boundary-layer flow in the presence of roughness elements. The immersed boundary technique has been coupled with a Lagrangian optimization in a three-dimensional framework. Four roughness elements with different heights have been studied, inducing amplification mechanisms that bypass the asymptotical growth of Tollmien-Schlichting waves. The results show that even very small roughness elements, inducing only a weak deformation of the base flow, can strongly localize the optimal disturbance. Moreover, the highest value of the energy gain is obtained for a varicose perturbation. This result demonstrates the relevance of varicose instabilities for such a flow and shows a different behavior with respect to the secondary instability theory of boundary layer streaks.Effect of plate permeability on nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10314
Effect of plate permeability on nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer
WEDIN, Hakan; CHERUBINI, Stefania; BOTTARO, Alessandro
The nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer is studied numerically, searching for finite-amplitude solutions that bifurcate from the laminar flow state. By changing the boundary conditions for disturbances at the plate from the classical no-slip condition to more physically sound ones, the stability characteristics of the flow may change radically, both for the linearized as well as the nonlinear problem. The wall boundary condition takes into account the permeability K of the plate; for very low permeability, it is acceptable to impose the classical boundary condition (K=0). This leads to a Reynolds number of approximately Rec=54400 for the onset of linearly unstable waves, and close to Reg=3200 for the emergence of nonlinear solutions [F. A. Milinazzo and P. G. Saffman, J. Fluid Mech. 160, 281 (1985)JFLSA70022-112010.1017/S0022112085003482; J. H. M. Fransson, Ph.D. thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Sweden, 2003]. However, for larger values of the plate's permeability, the lower limit for the existence of linear and nonlinear solutions shifts to significantly lower Reynolds numbers. For the largest permeability studied here, the limit values of the Reynolds numbers reduce down to Rec=796 and Reg=294. For all cases studied, the solutions bifurcate subcritically toward lower Re, and this leads to the conjecture that they may be involved in the very first stages of a transition scenario similar to the classical route of the Blasius boundary layer initiated by Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. The stability of these nonlinear solutions is also investigated, showing a low-frequency main unstable mode whose growth rate decreases with increasing permeability and with the Reynolds number, following a power law Re-ρ, where the value of ρ depends on the permeability coefficient K. The nonlinear dynamics of the flow in the vicinity of the computed finite-amplitude solutions is finally investigated by direct numerical simulations, providing a viable scenario for subcritical transition due to TS waves
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/103142015-01-01T00:00:00ZWEDIN, HakanCHERUBINI, StefaniaBOTTARO, AlessandroThe nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer is studied numerically, searching for finite-amplitude solutions that bifurcate from the laminar flow state. By changing the boundary conditions for disturbances at the plate from the classical no-slip condition to more physically sound ones, the stability characteristics of the flow may change radically, both for the linearized as well as the nonlinear problem. The wall boundary condition takes into account the permeability K of the plate; for very low permeability, it is acceptable to impose the classical boundary condition (K=0). This leads to a Reynolds number of approximately Rec=54400 for the onset of linearly unstable waves, and close to Reg=3200 for the emergence of nonlinear solutions [F. A. Milinazzo and P. G. Saffman, J. Fluid Mech. 160, 281 (1985)JFLSA70022-112010.1017/S0022112085003482; J. H. M. Fransson, Ph.D. thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Sweden, 2003]. However, for larger values of the plate's permeability, the lower limit for the existence of linear and nonlinear solutions shifts to significantly lower Reynolds numbers. For the largest permeability studied here, the limit values of the Reynolds numbers reduce down to Rec=796 and Reg=294. For all cases studied, the solutions bifurcate subcritically toward lower Re, and this leads to the conjecture that they may be involved in the very first stages of a transition scenario similar to the classical route of the Blasius boundary layer initiated by Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. The stability of these nonlinear solutions is also investigated, showing a low-frequency main unstable mode whose growth rate decreases with increasing permeability and with the Reynolds number, following a power law Re-ρ, where the value of ρ depends on the permeability coefficient K. The nonlinear dynamics of the flow in the vicinity of the computed finite-amplitude solutions is finally investigated by direct numerical simulations, providing a viable scenario for subcritical transition due to TS wavesOn the influence of the modelling of superhydrophobic surfaces on laminar–turbulent transition
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/23783
On the influence of the modelling of superhydrophobic surfaces on laminar–turbulent transition
PICELLA, Francesco; ROBINET, Jean-Christophe; CHERUBINI, Stefania
Superhydrophobic surfaces dramatically reduce the skin friction of overlying liquid flows, providing a lubricating layer of gas bubbles trapped within their surface nano-sculptures. Under wetting-stable conditions, different models can be used to numerically simulate their effect on the overlying flow, ranging from spatially homogeneous slip conditions at the wall, to spatially heterogeneous slip–no-slip conditions taking into account or not the displacement of the gas–water interfaces. These models provide similar results in both laminar and turbulent regimes, but their effect on transitional flows has not been investigated yet. In this work we study, by means of numerical simulations and global stability analyses, the influence of the modelling of superhydrophobic surfaces on laminar–turbulent transition in a channel flow. For the K-type scenario, a strong transition
delay is found using spatially homogeneous or heterogeneous slippery boundaries with flat, rigid liquid–gas interfaces. Whereas, when the interface dynamics is taken into account, the time to transition is reduced, approaching that of a no-slip channel flow. It is found that the interface deformation promotes ejection events creating hairpin heads that are prone to breakdown, reducing the transition delay effect with respect to flat slippery surfaces. Thus, in the case of modal transition, the interface dynamics must be taken into account for accurately estimating transition delay. Contrariwise, non-modal transition
triggered by a broadband forcing is unaffected by the presence of these surfaces, no matter the surface modelling. Thus, superhydrophobic surfaces may or not influence transition to turbulence depending on the interface dynamics and on the considered transition process.
Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/237832020-08-01T00:00:00ZPICELLA, FrancescoROBINET, Jean-ChristopheCHERUBINI, StefaniaSuperhydrophobic surfaces dramatically reduce the skin friction of overlying liquid flows, providing a lubricating layer of gas bubbles trapped within their surface nano-sculptures. Under wetting-stable conditions, different models can be used to numerically simulate their effect on the overlying flow, ranging from spatially homogeneous slip conditions at the wall, to spatially heterogeneous slip–no-slip conditions taking into account or not the displacement of the gas–water interfaces. These models provide similar results in both laminar and turbulent regimes, but their effect on transitional flows has not been investigated yet. In this work we study, by means of numerical simulations and global stability analyses, the influence of the modelling of superhydrophobic surfaces on laminar–turbulent transition in a channel flow. For the K-type scenario, a strong transition
delay is found using spatially homogeneous or heterogeneous slippery boundaries with flat, rigid liquid–gas interfaces. Whereas, when the interface dynamics is taken into account, the time to transition is reduced, approaching that of a no-slip channel flow. It is found that the interface deformation promotes ejection events creating hairpin heads that are prone to breakdown, reducing the transition delay effect with respect to flat slippery surfaces. Thus, in the case of modal transition, the interface dynamics must be taken into account for accurately estimating transition delay. Contrariwise, non-modal transition
triggered by a broadband forcing is unaffected by the presence of these surfaces, no matter the surface modelling. Thus, superhydrophobic surfaces may or not influence transition to turbulence depending on the interface dynamics and on the considered transition process.Minimal energy thresholds for sustained turbulent bands in channel flow
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/24022
Minimal energy thresholds for sustained turbulent bands in channel flow
PARENTE, Enza; ROBINET, Jean-Christophe; DE PALMA, Paul; CHERUBINI, Stefania
In this work, nonlinear variational optimization is used for obtaining minimal seeds for the formation of turbulent bands in channel flow. Using nonlinear optimization together with energy bisection, we have found that the minimal energy threshold for obtaining spatially patterned turbulence scales with$Re^{-8.5}$for$Re>1000$. The minimal seed, which is different to that found in a much smaller domain, is characterized by a spot-like structure surrounded by a low-amplitude large-scale quadrupolar flow filling the whole domain. This minimal-energy perturbation of the laminar flow has dominant wavelengths close to$4$in the streamwise direction and$1$in the spanwise direction, and is characterized by a spatial localization increasing with the Reynolds number. At$Re \lesssim 1200$, the minimal seed evolves in time, creating an isolated oblique band, whereas for$Re\gtrsim 1200$, a quasi-spanwise-symmetric evolution is observed, giving rise to two distinct bands. A similar evolution is found also at low$Re$for non-minimal optimal perturbations. This highlights two different mechanisms of formation of turbulent bands in channel flow, depending on the Reynolds number and initial energy of the perturbation. The selection of one of these two mechanisms appears to be dependent on the probability of decay of the newly created stripe, which increases with time, but decreases with the Reynolds number.
Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/240222022-05-01T00:00:00ZPARENTE, EnzaROBINET, Jean-ChristopheDE PALMA, PaulCHERUBINI, StefaniaIn this work, nonlinear variational optimization is used for obtaining minimal seeds for the formation of turbulent bands in channel flow. Using nonlinear optimization together with energy bisection, we have found that the minimal energy threshold for obtaining spatially patterned turbulence scales with$Re^{-8.5}$for$Re>1000$. The minimal seed, which is different to that found in a much smaller domain, is characterized by a spot-like structure surrounded by a low-amplitude large-scale quadrupolar flow filling the whole domain. This minimal-energy perturbation of the laminar flow has dominant wavelengths close to$4$in the streamwise direction and$1$in the spanwise direction, and is characterized by a spatial localization increasing with the Reynolds number. At$Re \lesssim 1200$, the minimal seed evolves in time, creating an isolated oblique band, whereas for$Re\gtrsim 1200$, a quasi-spanwise-symmetric evolution is observed, giving rise to two distinct bands. A similar evolution is found also at low$Re$for non-minimal optimal perturbations. This highlights two different mechanisms of formation of turbulent bands in channel flow, depending on the Reynolds number and initial energy of the perturbation. The selection of one of these two mechanisms appears to be dependent on the probability of decay of the newly created stripe, which increases with time, but decreases with the Reynolds number.Variational Nonlinear Optimization in Fluid Dynamics: The Case of a Channel Flow with Superhydrophobic Walls
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/24021
Variational Nonlinear Optimization in Fluid Dynamics: The Case of a Channel Flow with Superhydrophobic Walls
CHERUBINI, Stefania; PICELLA, Francesco; ROBINET, Jean-Christophe
Variational optimization has been recently applied to nonlinear systems with many degrees of freedom such as shear flows undergoing transition to turbulence. This technique has unveiled powerful energy growth mechanisms able to produce typical coherent structures currently observed in transition and turbulence. However, it is still not clear the extent to which these nonlinear optimal energy growth mechanisms are robust with respect to external disturbances or wall imperfections. Within this framework, this work aims at investigating how nano-roughnesses such as those of superhydrophobic surfaces affect optimal energy growth mechanisms relying on nonlinearity. Nonlinear optimizations have been carried out in a channel flow with no-slip and slippery boundaries, mimicking the presence of superhydrophobic surfaces. For increasing slip length, the energy threshold for obtaining hairpin-like nonlinear optimal perturbations slightly rises, scaling approximately with Re−2.36 no matter the slip length. The corresponding energy gain increases with Re with a slope that reduces with the slip length, being almost halved for the largest slip and Reynolds number considered. This suggests a strong effect of boundary slip on the energy growth of these perturbations. While energy is considerably decreased, the shape of the optimal perturbation barely changes, indicating the robustness of optimal perturbations with respect to wall slip.
Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/240212020-12-01T00:00:00ZCHERUBINI, StefaniaPICELLA, FrancescoROBINET, Jean-ChristopheVariational optimization has been recently applied to nonlinear systems with many degrees of freedom such as shear flows undergoing transition to turbulence. This technique has unveiled powerful energy growth mechanisms able to produce typical coherent structures currently observed in transition and turbulence. However, it is still not clear the extent to which these nonlinear optimal energy growth mechanisms are robust with respect to external disturbances or wall imperfections. Within this framework, this work aims at investigating how nano-roughnesses such as those of superhydrophobic surfaces affect optimal energy growth mechanisms relying on nonlinearity. Nonlinear optimizations have been carried out in a channel flow with no-slip and slippery boundaries, mimicking the presence of superhydrophobic surfaces. For increasing slip length, the energy threshold for obtaining hairpin-like nonlinear optimal perturbations slightly rises, scaling approximately with Re−2.36 no matter the slip length. The corresponding energy gain increases with Re with a slope that reduces with the slip length, being almost halved for the largest slip and Reynolds number considered. This suggests a strong effect of boundary slip on the energy growth of these perturbations. While energy is considerably decreased, the shape of the optimal perturbation barely changes, indicating the robustness of optimal perturbations with respect to wall slip.Nonlinear optimal perturbation of turbulent channel flow as a precursor of extreme events
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/24141
Nonlinear optimal perturbation of turbulent channel flow as a precursor of extreme events
CIOLA, Nicola; DE PALMA, Paul; ROBINET, Jean-Christophe; CHERUBINI, Stefania
This work aims at studying the mechanisms behind the occurrence of extreme dissipation events in a channel flow, identifying nonlinear optimal perturbations as potential precursors of these events. Nonlinear optimal perturbations with respect to a generic turbulent instantaneous snapshot are computed for the first time using a direct-adjoint algorithm in the channel flow at
$Re_{\tau }\approx 180$ . The resulting initial perturbation displays the upstream tilting characteristic of Orr's mechanism and is positioned along the interfaces between two opposite-sign velocity streaks of the pre-existing turbulent field. Such a perturbation induces a sudden breakdown of the pre-existing structures and a heavier tail in the dissipation probability density function distribution. Different mechanisms are at play during this process: the high shear present at the interface between coherent low- and high-momentum regions is exploited to break down the larger structures and drive energy to small scales. This energy cascade is fed by an enhanced lift-up effect that produces intense streaks near the wall. It is found that the optimal perturbation grows exponentially during the first phase of its evolution reflecting the existence of a secondary modal instability of the streaks. To corroborate the results, the conditional spatiotemporal proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis of Hack & Schimdt (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 907, 2021, A9) is performed both in the perturbed and in the unperturbed flow, showing a clear agreement between the two cases and with the reference study. Thus, the optimal perturbation at initial time can be considered as a precursor of extreme events.
Tue, 01 Aug 2023 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/241412023-08-01T00:00:00ZCIOLA, NicolaDE PALMA, PaulROBINET, Jean-ChristopheCHERUBINI, StefaniaThis work aims at studying the mechanisms behind the occurrence of extreme dissipation events in a channel flow, identifying nonlinear optimal perturbations as potential precursors of these events. Nonlinear optimal perturbations with respect to a generic turbulent instantaneous snapshot are computed for the first time using a direct-adjoint algorithm in the channel flow at
$Re_{\tau }\approx 180$ . The resulting initial perturbation displays the upstream tilting characteristic of Orr's mechanism and is positioned along the interfaces between two opposite-sign velocity streaks of the pre-existing turbulent field. Such a perturbation induces a sudden breakdown of the pre-existing structures and a heavier tail in the dissipation probability density function distribution. Different mechanisms are at play during this process: the high shear present at the interface between coherent low- and high-momentum regions is exploited to break down the larger structures and drive energy to small scales. This energy cascade is fed by an enhanced lift-up effect that produces intense streaks near the wall. It is found that the optimal perturbation grows exponentially during the first phase of its evolution reflecting the existence of a secondary modal instability of the streaks. To corroborate the results, the conditional spatiotemporal proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis of Hack & Schimdt (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 907, 2021, A9) is performed both in the perturbed and in the unperturbed flow, showing a clear agreement between the two cases and with the reference study. Thus, the optimal perturbation at initial time can be considered as a precursor of extreme events.Nonlinear optimal perturbations in a Couette flow: bursting and transition
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6863
Nonlinear optimal perturbations in a Couette flow: bursting and transition
CHERUBINI, Stefania; DE PALMA, Pietro
This paper provides the analysis of bursting and transition to turbulence in a Couette flow, based on the growth of nonlinear optimal disturbances. We use a global variational procedure to identify such optimal disturbances, defined as those initial perturbations yielding the largest energy growth at a given target time, for given Reynolds number and initial energy. The nonlinear optimal disturbances are found to be characterized by a basic structure, composed of inclined streamwise vortices along localized regions of low and high momentum. This basic structure closely recalls that found in boundary-layer flow (Cherubini et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 689, 2011, pp. 221–253), indicating that this structure may be considered the most ‘energetic’ one at short target times. However, small differences in the shape of these optimal perturbations, due to different levels of the initial energy or target time assigned in the optimization process, may produce remarkable differences in their evolution towards turbulence. In particular, direct numerical simulations have shown that optimal disturbances obtained for large initial energies and target times induce bursting events, whereas for lower values of these parameters the flow is directly attracted towards the turbulent state. For this reason, the optimal disturbances have been classified into two classes, the highly dissipative and the short-path perturbations. Both classes lead the flow to turbulence, skipping the phases of streak formation and secondary instability which are typical of the classical transition scenario for shear flows. The dynamics of this transition scenario exploits three main features of the nonlinear optimal disturbances: (i) the large initial value of the streamwise velocity component; (ii) the streamwise dependence of the disturbance; (iii) the presence of initial inclined streamwise vortices. The short-path perturbations are found to spend a considerable amount of time in the vicinity of the edge state (Schneider et al., Phys. Rev. E, vol. 78, 2008, 037301), whereas the highly dissipative optimal disturbances pass closer to the edge, but they are rapidly repelled away from it, leading the flow to high values of the dissipation rate. After this dissipation peak, the trajectories do not lead towards the turbulent attractor, but they spend some time in the vicinity of an unstable periodic orbit (UPO). This behaviour led us to conjecture that bursting events can be obtained not only as homoclinic orbits approaching the UPO, as recently found by van Veen & Kawahara (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 107, 2011, p. 114501), but also as heteroclinic orbits between the equilibrium solution on the edge and the UPO.
Tue, 01 Jan 2013 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/68632013-01-01T00:00:00ZCHERUBINI, StefaniaDE PALMA, PietroThis paper provides the analysis of bursting and transition to turbulence in a Couette flow, based on the growth of nonlinear optimal disturbances. We use a global variational procedure to identify such optimal disturbances, defined as those initial perturbations yielding the largest energy growth at a given target time, for given Reynolds number and initial energy. The nonlinear optimal disturbances are found to be characterized by a basic structure, composed of inclined streamwise vortices along localized regions of low and high momentum. This basic structure closely recalls that found in boundary-layer flow (Cherubini et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 689, 2011, pp. 221–253), indicating that this structure may be considered the most ‘energetic’ one at short target times. However, small differences in the shape of these optimal perturbations, due to different levels of the initial energy or target time assigned in the optimization process, may produce remarkable differences in their evolution towards turbulence. In particular, direct numerical simulations have shown that optimal disturbances obtained for large initial energies and target times induce bursting events, whereas for lower values of these parameters the flow is directly attracted towards the turbulent state. For this reason, the optimal disturbances have been classified into two classes, the highly dissipative and the short-path perturbations. Both classes lead the flow to turbulence, skipping the phases of streak formation and secondary instability which are typical of the classical transition scenario for shear flows. The dynamics of this transition scenario exploits three main features of the nonlinear optimal disturbances: (i) the large initial value of the streamwise velocity component; (ii) the streamwise dependence of the disturbance; (iii) the presence of initial inclined streamwise vortices. The short-path perturbations are found to spend a considerable amount of time in the vicinity of the edge state (Schneider et al., Phys. Rev. E, vol. 78, 2008, 037301), whereas the highly dissipative optimal disturbances pass closer to the edge, but they are rapidly repelled away from it, leading the flow to high values of the dissipation rate. After this dissipation peak, the trajectories do not lead towards the turbulent attractor, but they spend some time in the vicinity of an unstable periodic orbit (UPO). This behaviour led us to conjecture that bursting events can be obtained not only as homoclinic orbits approaching the UPO, as recently found by van Veen & Kawahara (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 107, 2011, p. 114501), but also as heteroclinic orbits between the equilibrium solution on the edge and the UPO.Minimal-energy perturbations rapidly approaching the edge state in Couette flow
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10319
Minimal-energy perturbations rapidly approaching the edge state in Couette flow
CHERUBINI, Stefania; DE PALMA, Pietro
Transition to turbulence in shear flows is often subcritical, thus the dynamics of the flow strongly depends on the shape and amplitude of the perturbation of the laminar state. In the state space, initial perturbations which directly relaminarize are separated from those that go through a chaotic trajectory by a hypersurface having a very small number of unstable dimensions, known as the edge of chaos. Even for the simple case of plane Couette flow in a small domain, the edge of chaos is characterized by a fractal, folded structure. Thus, the problem of determining the threshold energy to trigger subcritical transition consists in finding the states on this complex hypersurface with minimal distance (in the energy norm) from the laminar state. In this work we have investigated the minimal-energy regions of the edge of chaos, by developing a minimization method looking for the minimal-energy perturbations capable of approaching the edge state (within a prescribed tolerance) in a finite target time T. For sufficiently small target times, the value of the minimal energy has been found to vary with T following a power law, whose best fit is given by E T-1.75. For large values of T, the minimal energy achieves a constant value which corresponds to the energy of the minimal seed, namely the perturbation of minimal energy asymptotically approaching the edge state (Rabin etÂ al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 738, 2012, R1). For T\geqslant 40, all of the symmetries of the edge state are broken and the minimal perturbation appears to be localized in space with a basic structure composed of scattered patches of streamwise velocity with inclined streamwise vortices on their flanks. Finally, we have found that minimal perturbations originate in a small low-energy zone of the state space and follow very fast similar trajectories towards the edge state. Such trajectories are very different from those of linear optimal disturbances, which need much higher initial amplitudes to approach the edge state. The time evolution of these minimal perturbations represents the most efficient path to subcritical transition for Couette flow.
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/103192015-01-01T00:00:00ZCHERUBINI, StefaniaDE PALMA, PietroTransition to turbulence in shear flows is often subcritical, thus the dynamics of the flow strongly depends on the shape and amplitude of the perturbation of the laminar state. In the state space, initial perturbations which directly relaminarize are separated from those that go through a chaotic trajectory by a hypersurface having a very small number of unstable dimensions, known as the edge of chaos. Even for the simple case of plane Couette flow in a small domain, the edge of chaos is characterized by a fractal, folded structure. Thus, the problem of determining the threshold energy to trigger subcritical transition consists in finding the states on this complex hypersurface with minimal distance (in the energy norm) from the laminar state. In this work we have investigated the minimal-energy regions of the edge of chaos, by developing a minimization method looking for the minimal-energy perturbations capable of approaching the edge state (within a prescribed tolerance) in a finite target time T. For sufficiently small target times, the value of the minimal energy has been found to vary with T following a power law, whose best fit is given by E T-1.75. For large values of T, the minimal energy achieves a constant value which corresponds to the energy of the minimal seed, namely the perturbation of minimal energy asymptotically approaching the edge state (Rabin etÂ al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 738, 2012, R1). For T\geqslant 40, all of the symmetries of the edge state are broken and the minimal perturbation appears to be localized in space with a basic structure composed of scattered patches of streamwise velocity with inclined streamwise vortices on their flanks. Finally, we have found that minimal perturbations originate in a small low-energy zone of the state space and follow very fast similar trajectories towards the edge state. Such trajectories are very different from those of linear optimal disturbances, which need much higher initial amplitudes to approach the edge state. The time evolution of these minimal perturbations represents the most efficient path to subcritical transition for Couette flow.