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http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9013
Optimal perturbations in boundary layer flows over rough surfaces
CHERUBINI, Stefania; DE TULLIO, Marco; DE PALMA, Pietro; PASCAZIO, Giuseppe
This work provides a three-dimensional energy optimization analysis, looking for perturbations inducing the largest energy growth at a finite time in a boundary-layer flow in the presence of roughness elements. The immersed boundary technique has been coupled with a Lagrangian optimization in a three-dimensional framework. Four roughness elements with different heights have been studied, inducing amplification mechanisms that bypass the asymptotical growth of Tollmien-Schlichting waves. The results show that even very small roughness elements, inducing only a weak deformation of the base flow, can strongly localize the optimal disturbance. Moreover, the highest value of the energy gain is obtained for a varicose perturbation. This result demonstrates the relevance of varicose instabilities for such a flow and shows a different behavior with respect to the secondary instability theory of boundary layer streaks.
Tue, 01 Jan 2013 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/90132013-01-01T00:00:00ZCHERUBINI, StefaniaDE TULLIO, MarcoDE PALMA, PietroPASCAZIO, GiuseppeThis work provides a three-dimensional energy optimization analysis, looking for perturbations inducing the largest energy growth at a finite time in a boundary-layer flow in the presence of roughness elements. The immersed boundary technique has been coupled with a Lagrangian optimization in a three-dimensional framework. Four roughness elements with different heights have been studied, inducing amplification mechanisms that bypass the asymptotical growth of Tollmien-Schlichting waves. The results show that even very small roughness elements, inducing only a weak deformation of the base flow, can strongly localize the optimal disturbance. Moreover, the highest value of the energy gain is obtained for a varicose perturbation. This result demonstrates the relevance of varicose instabilities for such a flow and shows a different behavior with respect to the secondary instability theory of boundary layer streaks.Nonlinear optimal perturbations in a Couette flow: bursting and transition
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6863
Nonlinear optimal perturbations in a Couette flow: bursting and transition
CHERUBINI, Stefania; DE PALMA, Pietro
This paper provides the analysis of bursting and transition to turbulence in a Couette flow, based on the growth of nonlinear optimal disturbances. We use a global variational procedure to identify such optimal disturbances, defined as those initial perturbations yielding the largest energy growth at a given target time, for given Reynolds number and initial energy. The nonlinear optimal disturbances are found to be characterized by a basic structure, composed of inclined streamwise vortices along localized regions of low and high momentum. This basic structure closely recalls that found in boundary-layer flow (Cherubini et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 689, 2011, pp. 221–253), indicating that this structure may be considered the most ‘energetic’ one at short target times. However, small differences in the shape of these optimal perturbations, due to different levels of the initial energy or target time assigned in the optimization process, may produce remarkable differences in their evolution towards turbulence. In particular, direct numerical simulations have shown that optimal disturbances obtained for large initial energies and target times induce bursting events, whereas for lower values of these parameters the flow is directly attracted towards the turbulent state. For this reason, the optimal disturbances have been classified into two classes, the highly dissipative and the short-path perturbations. Both classes lead the flow to turbulence, skipping the phases of streak formation and secondary instability which are typical of the classical transition scenario for shear flows. The dynamics of this transition scenario exploits three main features of the nonlinear optimal disturbances: (i) the large initial value of the streamwise velocity component; (ii) the streamwise dependence of the disturbance; (iii) the presence of initial inclined streamwise vortices. The short-path perturbations are found to spend a considerable amount of time in the vicinity of the edge state (Schneider et al., Phys. Rev. E, vol. 78, 2008, 037301), whereas the highly dissipative optimal disturbances pass closer to the edge, but they are rapidly repelled away from it, leading the flow to high values of the dissipation rate. After this dissipation peak, the trajectories do not lead towards the turbulent attractor, but they spend some time in the vicinity of an unstable periodic orbit (UPO). This behaviour led us to conjecture that bursting events can be obtained not only as homoclinic orbits approaching the UPO, as recently found by van Veen & Kawahara (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 107, 2011, p. 114501), but also as heteroclinic orbits between the equilibrium solution on the edge and the UPO.
Tue, 01 Jan 2013 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/68632013-01-01T00:00:00ZCHERUBINI, StefaniaDE PALMA, PietroThis paper provides the analysis of bursting and transition to turbulence in a Couette flow, based on the growth of nonlinear optimal disturbances. We use a global variational procedure to identify such optimal disturbances, defined as those initial perturbations yielding the largest energy growth at a given target time, for given Reynolds number and initial energy. The nonlinear optimal disturbances are found to be characterized by a basic structure, composed of inclined streamwise vortices along localized regions of low and high momentum. This basic structure closely recalls that found in boundary-layer flow (Cherubini et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 689, 2011, pp. 221–253), indicating that this structure may be considered the most ‘energetic’ one at short target times. However, small differences in the shape of these optimal perturbations, due to different levels of the initial energy or target time assigned in the optimization process, may produce remarkable differences in their evolution towards turbulence. In particular, direct numerical simulations have shown that optimal disturbances obtained for large initial energies and target times induce bursting events, whereas for lower values of these parameters the flow is directly attracted towards the turbulent state. For this reason, the optimal disturbances have been classified into two classes, the highly dissipative and the short-path perturbations. Both classes lead the flow to turbulence, skipping the phases of streak formation and secondary instability which are typical of the classical transition scenario for shear flows. The dynamics of this transition scenario exploits three main features of the nonlinear optimal disturbances: (i) the large initial value of the streamwise velocity component; (ii) the streamwise dependence of the disturbance; (iii) the presence of initial inclined streamwise vortices. The short-path perturbations are found to spend a considerable amount of time in the vicinity of the edge state (Schneider et al., Phys. Rev. E, vol. 78, 2008, 037301), whereas the highly dissipative optimal disturbances pass closer to the edge, but they are rapidly repelled away from it, leading the flow to high values of the dissipation rate. After this dissipation peak, the trajectories do not lead towards the turbulent attractor, but they spend some time in the vicinity of an unstable periodic orbit (UPO). This behaviour led us to conjecture that bursting events can be obtained not only as homoclinic orbits approaching the UPO, as recently found by van Veen & Kawahara (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 107, 2011, p. 114501), but also as heteroclinic orbits between the equilibrium solution on the edge and the UPO.A purely nonlinear route to transition approaching the edge of chaos in a boundary layer
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6864
A purely nonlinear route to transition approaching the edge of chaos in a boundary layer
CHERUBINI, Stefania; DE PALMA, Pietro; BOTTARO, Alessandro; ROBINET, Jean-Christophe
The understanding of transition in shear flows has recently progressed along new paradigms based on the central role of coherent flow structures and their nonlinear interactions. We follow such paradigms to identify, by means of a nonlinear optimization of the energy growth at short time, the initial perturbation which most easily induces transition in a boundary layer. Moreover, a bisection procedure has been used to identify localized flow structures living on the edge of chaos, found to be populated by hairpin vortices and streaks. Such an edge structure appears to act as a relative attractor for the trajectory of the laminar base state perturbed by the initial finite-amplitude disturbances, mediating the route to turbulence of the flow, via the triggering of a regeneration cycle of Lambda and hairpin structures at different space and time scales. These findings introduce a new, purely nonlinear scenario of transition in a boundary-layer flow.
Publisher version : http://iopscience.iop.org/1873-7005/44/3/031404
Sun, 01 Jan 2012 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/68642012-01-01T00:00:00ZCHERUBINI, StefaniaDE PALMA, PietroBOTTARO, AlessandroROBINET, Jean-ChristopheThe understanding of transition in shear flows has recently progressed along new paradigms based on the central role of coherent flow structures and their nonlinear interactions. We follow such paradigms to identify, by means of a nonlinear optimization of the energy growth at short time, the initial perturbation which most easily induces transition in a boundary layer. Moreover, a bisection procedure has been used to identify localized flow structures living on the edge of chaos, found to be populated by hairpin vortices and streaks. Such an edge structure appears to act as a relative attractor for the trajectory of the laminar base state perturbed by the initial finite-amplitude disturbances, mediating the route to turbulence of the flow, via the triggering of a regeneration cycle of Lambda and hairpin structures at different space and time scales. These findings introduce a new, purely nonlinear scenario of transition in a boundary-layer flow.Edge states in a boundary layer
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6868
Edge states in a boundary layer
CHERUBINI, Stefania; DE PALMA, Pietro; BOTTARO, Alessandro; ROBINET, Jean-Christophe
The understanding of laminar-turbulent transition in shear flows has recently progressed along new paradigms based on the central role of nonlinear exact coherent states. We follow such paradigms to identify, for the first time in a spatially developing flow, localized flow structures living on the edge of chaos, which are the precursors of turbulence. These coherent structures are constituted by hairpin vortices and streamwise streaks. The results reported here extend the dynamical systems description of transition to spatially developing flows.
Publisher version : http://pof.aip.org/resource/1/phfle6/v23/i5/p051705_s1?isAuthorized=no
Sat, 01 Jan 2011 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/68682011-01-01T00:00:00ZCHERUBINI, StefaniaDE PALMA, PietroBOTTARO, AlessandroROBINET, Jean-ChristopheThe understanding of laminar-turbulent transition in shear flows has recently progressed along new paradigms based on the central role of nonlinear exact coherent states. We follow such paradigms to identify, for the first time in a spatially developing flow, localized flow structures living on the edge of chaos, which are the precursors of turbulence. These coherent structures are constituted by hairpin vortices and streamwise streaks. The results reported here extend the dynamical systems description of transition to spatially developing flows.Minimal-energy perturbations rapidly approaching the edge state in Couette flow
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10319
Minimal-energy perturbations rapidly approaching the edge state in Couette flow
CHERUBINI, Stefania; DE PALMA, Pietro
Transition to turbulence in shear flows is often subcritical, thus the dynamics of the flow strongly depends on the shape and amplitude of the perturbation of the laminar state. In the state space, initial perturbations which directly relaminarize are separated from those that go through a chaotic trajectory by a hypersurface having a very small number of unstable dimensions, known as the edge of chaos. Even for the simple case of plane Couette flow in a small domain, the edge of chaos is characterized by a fractal, folded structure. Thus, the problem of determining the threshold energy to trigger subcritical transition consists in finding the states on this complex hypersurface with minimal distance (in the energy norm) from the laminar state. In this work we have investigated the minimal-energy regions of the edge of chaos, by developing a minimization method looking for the minimal-energy perturbations capable of approaching the edge state (within a prescribed tolerance) in a finite target time T. For sufficiently small target times, the value of the minimal energy has been found to vary with T following a power law, whose best fit is given by E T-1.75. For large values of T, the minimal energy achieves a constant value which corresponds to the energy of the minimal seed, namely the perturbation of minimal energy asymptotically approaching the edge state (Rabin etÂ al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 738, 2012, R1). For T\geqslant 40, all of the symmetries of the edge state are broken and the minimal perturbation appears to be localized in space with a basic structure composed of scattered patches of streamwise velocity with inclined streamwise vortices on their flanks. Finally, we have found that minimal perturbations originate in a small low-energy zone of the state space and follow very fast similar trajectories towards the edge state. Such trajectories are very different from those of linear optimal disturbances, which need much higher initial amplitudes to approach the edge state. The time evolution of these minimal perturbations represents the most efficient path to subcritical transition for Couette flow.
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/103192015-01-01T00:00:00ZCHERUBINI, StefaniaDE PALMA, PietroTransition to turbulence in shear flows is often subcritical, thus the dynamics of the flow strongly depends on the shape and amplitude of the perturbation of the laminar state. In the state space, initial perturbations which directly relaminarize are separated from those that go through a chaotic trajectory by a hypersurface having a very small number of unstable dimensions, known as the edge of chaos. Even for the simple case of plane Couette flow in a small domain, the edge of chaos is characterized by a fractal, folded structure. Thus, the problem of determining the threshold energy to trigger subcritical transition consists in finding the states on this complex hypersurface with minimal distance (in the energy norm) from the laminar state. In this work we have investigated the minimal-energy regions of the edge of chaos, by developing a minimization method looking for the minimal-energy perturbations capable of approaching the edge state (within a prescribed tolerance) in a finite target time T. For sufficiently small target times, the value of the minimal energy has been found to vary with T following a power law, whose best fit is given by E T-1.75. For large values of T, the minimal energy achieves a constant value which corresponds to the energy of the minimal seed, namely the perturbation of minimal energy asymptotically approaching the edge state (Rabin etÂ al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 738, 2012, R1). For T\geqslant 40, all of the symmetries of the edge state are broken and the minimal perturbation appears to be localized in space with a basic structure composed of scattered patches of streamwise velocity with inclined streamwise vortices on their flanks. Finally, we have found that minimal perturbations originate in a small low-energy zone of the state space and follow very fast similar trajectories towards the edge state. Such trajectories are very different from those of linear optimal disturbances, which need much higher initial amplitudes to approach the edge state. The time evolution of these minimal perturbations represents the most efficient path to subcritical transition for Couette flow.Nonlinear optimals in the asymptotic suction boundary layer: Transition thresholds and symmetry breaking
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10320
Nonlinear optimals in the asymptotic suction boundary layer: Transition thresholds and symmetry breaking
CHERUBINI, Stefania; DE PALMA, Pietro; ROBINET, Jean-Christophe
The effect of a constant homogeneous wall suction on the nonlinear transient growth of localized finite amplitude perturbations in a boundary-layer flow is investigated. Using a variational technique, nonlinear optimal disturbances are computed for the asymptotic suction boundary layer (ASBL) flow, defined as those finite amplitude disturbances yielding the largest energy growth at a given target time T. It is found that homogeneous wall suction remarkably reduces the optimal energy gain in the nonlinear case. Furthermore, mirror-symmetry breaking of the shape of the optimal perturbation appears when decreasing the Reynolds number from 10?000 to 5000, whereas spanwise mirror-symmetry was a robust feature of the nonlinear optimal perturbations found in the Blasius boundary-layer flow. Direct numerical simulations show that the different evolutions of the symmetric and of the non-symmetric initial perturbations are linked to different mechanisms of transport and tilting of the vortices by the mean flow. By bisecting the initial energy of the nonlinear optimal perturbations, minimal energy thresholds for subcritical transition to turbulence have been obtained. These energy thresholds are found to be 1-4 orders of magnitude smaller than those provided in the literature for other transition scenarios. For low to moderate Reynolds numbers, the energy thresholds are found to scale with Re-2, suggesting a new scaling law for transition in the ASBL.
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/103202015-01-01T00:00:00ZCHERUBINI, StefaniaDE PALMA, PietroROBINET, Jean-ChristopheThe effect of a constant homogeneous wall suction on the nonlinear transient growth of localized finite amplitude perturbations in a boundary-layer flow is investigated. Using a variational technique, nonlinear optimal disturbances are computed for the asymptotic suction boundary layer (ASBL) flow, defined as those finite amplitude disturbances yielding the largest energy growth at a given target time T. It is found that homogeneous wall suction remarkably reduces the optimal energy gain in the nonlinear case. Furthermore, mirror-symmetry breaking of the shape of the optimal perturbation appears when decreasing the Reynolds number from 10?000 to 5000, whereas spanwise mirror-symmetry was a robust feature of the nonlinear optimal perturbations found in the Blasius boundary-layer flow. Direct numerical simulations show that the different evolutions of the symmetric and of the non-symmetric initial perturbations are linked to different mechanisms of transport and tilting of the vortices by the mean flow. By bisecting the initial energy of the nonlinear optimal perturbations, minimal energy thresholds for subcritical transition to turbulence have been obtained. These energy thresholds are found to be 1-4 orders of magnitude smaller than those provided in the literature for other transition scenarios. For low to moderate Reynolds numbers, the energy thresholds are found to scale with Re-2, suggesting a new scaling law for transition in the ASBL.The minimal seed of turbulent transition in the boundary layer
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6718
The minimal seed of turbulent transition in the boundary layer
CHERUBINI, Stefania; DE PALMA, Pietro; BOTTARO, Alessandro; ROBINET, Jean-Christophe
This paper describes a scenario of transition from laminar to turbulent flow in a spatially developing boundary layer over a flat plate. The base flow is the Blasius non-parallel flow solution; it is perturbed by optimal disturbances yielding the largest energy growth over a short time interval. Such perturbations are computed by a nonlinear global optimization approach based on a Lagrange multiplier technique. The results show that nonlinear optimal perturbations are characterized by a localized basic building block, called the minimal seed, defined as the smallest flow structure which maximizes the energy growth over short times. It is formed by vortices inclined in the streamwise direction surrounding a region of intense streamwise disturbance velocity. Such a basic structure appears to be a robust feature of the base flow since it is practically invariant with respect to the initial energy of the perturbation, the target time, the Reynolds number and the dimensions of the computational domain. The minimal seed grows very rapidly in time while spreading, and it triggers nonlinear effects which bring the flow to turbulence in a very efficient manner, through the formation of a turbulence spot. This evolution of the initial optimal disturbance has been studied in detail by direct numerical simulations. Using a perturbative formulation of the Navier–Stokes equations, each linear and nonlinear convective term of the equations has been analysed. The results show the fundamental role of the streamwise inclination of the vortices in the process. The nonlinear coupling of the finite amplitude disturbances is crucial to sustain such streamwise inclination, as well as to generate dislocations within the flow structures, and local inflectional velocity distributions. The analysis provides a picture of the transition process characterized by a sequence of structures appearing successively in the flow, namely, 3 vortices, hairpin vortices and streamwise streaks. Finally, a disturbance regeneration cycle is conceived, initiated by the fast nonlinear amplification of the minimal seed, providing a possible scenario for the continuous regeneration of the same fundamental flow structures at smaller space and time scales.
Sat, 01 Jan 2011 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/67182011-01-01T00:00:00ZCHERUBINI, StefaniaDE PALMA, PietroBOTTARO, AlessandroROBINET, Jean-ChristopheThis paper describes a scenario of transition from laminar to turbulent flow in a spatially developing boundary layer over a flat plate. The base flow is the Blasius non-parallel flow solution; it is perturbed by optimal disturbances yielding the largest energy growth over a short time interval. Such perturbations are computed by a nonlinear global optimization approach based on a Lagrange multiplier technique. The results show that nonlinear optimal perturbations are characterized by a localized basic building block, called the minimal seed, defined as the smallest flow structure which maximizes the energy growth over short times. It is formed by vortices inclined in the streamwise direction surrounding a region of intense streamwise disturbance velocity. Such a basic structure appears to be a robust feature of the base flow since it is practically invariant with respect to the initial energy of the perturbation, the target time, the Reynolds number and the dimensions of the computational domain. The minimal seed grows very rapidly in time while spreading, and it triggers nonlinear effects which bring the flow to turbulence in a very efficient manner, through the formation of a turbulence spot. This evolution of the initial optimal disturbance has been studied in detail by direct numerical simulations. Using a perturbative formulation of the Navier–Stokes equations, each linear and nonlinear convective term of the equations has been analysed. The results show the fundamental role of the streamwise inclination of the vortices in the process. The nonlinear coupling of the finite amplitude disturbances is crucial to sustain such streamwise inclination, as well as to generate dislocations within the flow structures, and local inflectional velocity distributions. The analysis provides a picture of the transition process characterized by a sequence of structures appearing successively in the flow, namely, 3 vortices, hairpin vortices and streamwise streaks. Finally, a disturbance regeneration cycle is conceived, initiated by the fast nonlinear amplification of the minimal seed, providing a possible scenario for the continuous regeneration of the same fundamental flow structures at smaller space and time scales.Optimal wave packets in a boundary layer and initial phases of a turbulent spot
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6717
Optimal wave packets in a boundary layer and initial phases of a turbulent spot
CHERUBINI, Stefania; BOTTARO, Alessandro; DE PALMA, Pietro; ROBINET, Jean-Christophe
The three-dimensional global optimal dynamics of a flat-plate boundary layer is studied by means of an adjoint-based optimization in a spatial domain of long – but finite – streamwise dimension. The localized optimal initial perturbation is characterized by a pair of streamwise-modulated counter-rotating vortices, tilted upstream, yielding at the optimal time elongated streaks of alternating sign in the streamwise direction. This indicates that perturbations with non-zero streamwise wavenumber have a role in the transient dynamics of a boundary layer. A scaling law is provided, describing the variation of the streamwise modulation of the optimal initial perturbation with respect to the streamwise domain length and to the Reynolds number. For spanwise-extended domains, a near-optimal three-dimensional perturbation is extracted during the optimization process; it is localized also in the spanwise direction, resulting in a wave packet of elongated disturbances modulated in the spanwise and streamwise directions. The nonlinear evolution of the optimal and near-optimal perturbations is investigated by means of direct numerical simulations. Both perturbations are found to induce transition at lower levels of the initial energy than local optimal and suboptimal perturbations. Moreover, it is observed that transition occurs in a well-defined region of the convected wave packet, close to its centre, via a mechanism including at the same time oscillations of the streaks of both quasi-sinuous and quasi-varicose nature. Hairpin vortices are observed before transition; they have an active role in the breakdown of the streaks and result in a turbulent spot which spreads out in the boundary layer.
Fri, 01 Jan 2010 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/67172010-01-01T00:00:00ZCHERUBINI, StefaniaBOTTARO, AlessandroDE PALMA, PietroROBINET, Jean-ChristopheThe three-dimensional global optimal dynamics of a flat-plate boundary layer is studied by means of an adjoint-based optimization in a spatial domain of long – but finite – streamwise dimension. The localized optimal initial perturbation is characterized by a pair of streamwise-modulated counter-rotating vortices, tilted upstream, yielding at the optimal time elongated streaks of alternating sign in the streamwise direction. This indicates that perturbations with non-zero streamwise wavenumber have a role in the transient dynamics of a boundary layer. A scaling law is provided, describing the variation of the streamwise modulation of the optimal initial perturbation with respect to the streamwise domain length and to the Reynolds number. For spanwise-extended domains, a near-optimal three-dimensional perturbation is extracted during the optimization process; it is localized also in the spanwise direction, resulting in a wave packet of elongated disturbances modulated in the spanwise and streamwise directions. The nonlinear evolution of the optimal and near-optimal perturbations is investigated by means of direct numerical simulations. Both perturbations are found to induce transition at lower levels of the initial energy than local optimal and suboptimal perturbations. Moreover, it is observed that transition occurs in a well-defined region of the convected wave packet, close to its centre, via a mechanism including at the same time oscillations of the streaks of both quasi-sinuous and quasi-varicose nature. Hairpin vortices are observed before transition; they have an active role in the breakdown of the streaks and result in a turbulent spot which spreads out in the boundary layer.Nonlinear control of unsteady finite-amplitude perturbations in the Blasius boundary-layer flow
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9012
Nonlinear control of unsteady finite-amplitude perturbations in the Blasius boundary-layer flow
CHERUBINI, Stefania; DE PALMA, Pietro; ROBINET, Jean-Christophe
The present work provides an optimal control strategy, based on the nonlinear Navier–Stokes equations, aimed at hampering the rapid growth of unsteady finite-amplitude perturbations in a Blasius boundary-layer flow. A variational procedure is used to find the blowing and suction control law at the wall providing the maximum damping of the energy of a given perturbation at a given target time, with the final aim of leading the flow back to the laminar state. Two optimally growing finite-amplitude initial perturbations capable of leading very rapidly to transition have been used to initialize the flow. The nonlinear control procedure has been found able to drive such perturbations back to the laminar state, provided that the target time of the minimization and the region in which the blowing and suction is applied have been suitably chosen. On the other hand, an equivalent control procedure based on the linearized Navier–Stokes equations has been found much less effective, being not able to lead the flow to the laminar state when finite-amplitude disturbances are considered. Regions of strong sensitivity to blowing and suction have been also identified for the given initial perturbations: when the control is actuated in such regions, laminarization is also observed for a shorter extent of the actuation region. The nonlinear optimal blowing and suction law consists of alternating wall-normal velocity perturbations, which appear to modify the core flow structures by means of two distinct mechanisms: (i) a wall-normal velocity compensation at small times; (ii) a rotation-counterbalancing effect al larger times. Similar control laws have been observed for different target times, values of the cost parameter, and streamwise extents of the blowing and suction zone, meaning that these two mechanisms are robust features of the optimal control strategy, provided that the nonlinear effects are taken into account.
Tue, 01 Jan 2013 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/90122013-01-01T00:00:00ZCHERUBINI, StefaniaDE PALMA, PietroROBINET, Jean-ChristopheThe present work provides an optimal control strategy, based on the nonlinear Navier–Stokes equations, aimed at hampering the rapid growth of unsteady finite-amplitude perturbations in a Blasius boundary-layer flow. A variational procedure is used to find the blowing and suction control law at the wall providing the maximum damping of the energy of a given perturbation at a given target time, with the final aim of leading the flow back to the laminar state. Two optimally growing finite-amplitude initial perturbations capable of leading very rapidly to transition have been used to initialize the flow. The nonlinear control procedure has been found able to drive such perturbations back to the laminar state, provided that the target time of the minimization and the region in which the blowing and suction is applied have been suitably chosen. On the other hand, an equivalent control procedure based on the linearized Navier–Stokes equations has been found much less effective, being not able to lead the flow to the laminar state when finite-amplitude disturbances are considered. Regions of strong sensitivity to blowing and suction have been also identified for the given initial perturbations: when the control is actuated in such regions, laminarization is also observed for a shorter extent of the actuation region. The nonlinear optimal blowing and suction law consists of alternating wall-normal velocity perturbations, which appear to modify the core flow structures by means of two distinct mechanisms: (i) a wall-normal velocity compensation at small times; (ii) a rotation-counterbalancing effect al larger times. Similar control laws have been observed for different target times, values of the cost parameter, and streamwise extents of the blowing and suction zone, meaning that these two mechanisms are robust features of the optimal control strategy, provided that the nonlinear effects are taken into account.The onset of three-dimensional centrifugal global modes and their nonlinear development in a recirculating flow over a flat surface
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6867
The onset of three-dimensional centrifugal global modes and their nonlinear development in a recirculating flow over a flat surface
CHERUBINI, Stefania; DE PALMA, Pietro; ALIZARD, Frédéric; ROBINET, Jean-Christophe
The three-dimensional stability dynamics of a separation bubble over a flat plate has been studied in both linear and nonlinear conditions. Using a global eigenvalue analysis, two centrifugal global modes are identified: an asymptotically unstable three-dimensional weakly growing mode which appears to be originated by a Rayleigh instability; a marginally stable three-dimensional steady mode which is originated by a convective Gortler instability. Direct numerical simulations show that both modes play a role in the route to transition toward the turbulent flow. A structural sensitivity analysis is used to investigate the mechanism of selection of the path toward transition when small perturbations are considered. Finally, a scenario of transition via Gortler modes breakdown is studied in detail, revealing the formation of trains of hairpin vortices in streamwise succession.
Publisher version : http://pof.aip.org/resource/1/phfle6/v22/i11/p114102_s1?isAuthorized=no
Fri, 01 Jan 2010 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/68672010-01-01T00:00:00ZCHERUBINI, StefaniaDE PALMA, PietroALIZARD, FrédéricROBINET, Jean-ChristopheThe three-dimensional stability dynamics of a separation bubble over a flat plate has been studied in both linear and nonlinear conditions. Using a global eigenvalue analysis, two centrifugal global modes are identified: an asymptotically unstable three-dimensional weakly growing mode which appears to be originated by a Rayleigh instability; a marginally stable three-dimensional steady mode which is originated by a convective Gortler instability. Direct numerical simulations show that both modes play a role in the route to transition toward the turbulent flow. A structural sensitivity analysis is used to investigate the mechanism of selection of the path toward transition when small perturbations are considered. Finally, a scenario of transition via Gortler modes breakdown is studied in detail, revealing the formation of trains of hairpin vortices in streamwise succession.