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http://hdl.handle.net/10985/21360
Innovative design method and experimental investigation of a small-scale and very low tip-speed ratio wind turbine
BOURHIS, Martin; PEREIRA, Michael; RAVELET, Florent; DOBREV, Ivan
Small horizontal axis wind turbines operating at low wind speeds face the issue of low performance compared to large wind turbines. A high amount of torque is required to start producing power at low wind speed to overtake friction of mechanical parts. A low design tip-speed ratio (λ) is suitable for low power applications. The relevance of the classical blade-element/ momentum theory, traditionally used for the design of large wind turbines operating at high tip-speed ratio, is controversial at low tip-speed ratio. This paper presents a new design methodology for a 300 mm horizontal axis wind turbine operating at very low tip-speed ratio. Chord and blade angle distributions were computed by applying the Euler’s turbomachinery theorem. The new wind turbine has multiple fan-type blades and a high solidity. The rotor was tested in wind tunnel. The power and torque coefficients have been measured, and the velocities in the wake have been explored by stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. The results are compared to a conventional 3-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine operating at higher tip-speed ratio λ = 3. The new wind turbine achieves a maximum power coefficient of 0.31 for λ = 1. The conventional wind turbine achieves similar performance. At low tip-speed ratio, the torque coefficient (Cτ) is higher for the new wind turbine than for the conventional one and decreases linearly with the tip-speed ratio. The high magnitude of torque at low tip-speed ratio allows it to have lower instantaneous cut-in wind speed (2.4 m.s−1) than the conventional wind turbine (7.9 m.s−1). The order of magnitude of the axial and tangential velocities in the near wake are closed to the design requirements. The current method could still be improved in order to better predict the profiles. The analysis of the wake shows that the new wind turbine induces a highly stable and rotating wake, with lower wake expansion and deceleration than the conventional one. This could be useful to drive a contra-rotating rotor.
Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/213602021-01-01T00:00:00ZBOURHIS, MartinPEREIRA, MichaelRAVELET, FlorentDOBREV, IvanSmall horizontal axis wind turbines operating at low wind speeds face the issue of low performance compared to large wind turbines. A high amount of torque is required to start producing power at low wind speed to overtake friction of mechanical parts. A low design tip-speed ratio (λ) is suitable for low power applications. The relevance of the classical blade-element/ momentum theory, traditionally used for the design of large wind turbines operating at high tip-speed ratio, is controversial at low tip-speed ratio. This paper presents a new design methodology for a 300 mm horizontal axis wind turbine operating at very low tip-speed ratio. Chord and blade angle distributions were computed by applying the Euler’s turbomachinery theorem. The new wind turbine has multiple fan-type blades and a high solidity. The rotor was tested in wind tunnel. The power and torque coefficients have been measured, and the velocities in the wake have been explored by stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. The results are compared to a conventional 3-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine operating at higher tip-speed ratio λ = 3. The new wind turbine achieves a maximum power coefficient of 0.31 for λ = 1. The conventional wind turbine achieves similar performance. At low tip-speed ratio, the torque coefficient (Cτ) is higher for the new wind turbine than for the conventional one and decreases linearly with the tip-speed ratio. The high magnitude of torque at low tip-speed ratio allows it to have lower instantaneous cut-in wind speed (2.4 m.s−1) than the conventional wind turbine (7.9 m.s−1). The order of magnitude of the axial and tangential velocities in the near wake are closed to the design requirements. The current method could still be improved in order to better predict the profiles. The analysis of the wake shows that the new wind turbine induces a highly stable and rotating wake, with lower wake expansion and deceleration than the conventional one. This could be useful to drive a contra-rotating rotor.Numerical Assesment of a Small-Scale and Very Low Tip Speed Ratio Wind Turbine
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/21379
Numerical Assesment of a Small-Scale and Very Low Tip Speed Ratio Wind Turbine
BOURHIS, Martin; PEREIRA, Michaël; RAVELET, Florent; DOBREV, Ivan
The aim of this paper is to study by CFD the performance and to characterize the velocity fields in the wake of an horizontal axis wind turbine. The design of this wind turbine is far from classical as it has been designed to work at very low angular velocity to promote torque. The 8 blades are not isolated but form a high solidity blade cascade. The numerical simulation compares well to experimental data regarding the power coefficients. The analysis of the wake does show that high tangential velocities, close to the order of magnitude that was used as a design requirement, are generated and form a stable rotating wake. This rotating kinetic energy in the wake may be used to rotate a second rotor in a counter-rotating arrangment.
Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/213792021-01-01T00:00:00ZBOURHIS, MartinPEREIRA, MichaëlRAVELET, FlorentDOBREV, IvanThe aim of this paper is to study by CFD the performance and to characterize the velocity fields in the wake of an horizontal axis wind turbine. The design of this wind turbine is far from classical as it has been designed to work at very low angular velocity to promote torque. The 8 blades are not isolated but form a high solidity blade cascade. The numerical simulation compares well to experimental data regarding the power coefficients. The analysis of the wake does show that high tangential velocities, close to the order of magnitude that was used as a design requirement, are generated and form a stable rotating wake. This rotating kinetic energy in the wake may be used to rotate a second rotor in a counter-rotating arrangment.Bioinspired turbine blades offer new perspectives for wind energy
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/11774
Bioinspired turbine blades offer new perspectives for wind energy
COGNET, Vincent; COURRECH DU PONT, Sylvain; DOBREV, Ivan; MASSOUH, Fawaz; THIRIA, Benjamin
Wind energy is becoming a significant alternative solution for future energy production. Modern turbines now benefit from engineering expertise, and a large variety of different models exists, depending on the context and needs. However, classical wind turbines are designed to operate within a narrow zone centred around their optimal working point. This limitation prevents the use of sites with variable wind to harvest energy, involving significant energetic and economic losses. Here, we present a new type of bioinspired wind turbine using elastic blades, which passively deform through the air loading and centrifugal effects. This work is inspired from recent studies on insect flight and plant reconfiguration, which show the ability of elastic wings or leaves to adapt to the wind conditions and thereby to optimize performance. We show that in the context of energy production, the reconfiguration of the elastic blades significantly extends the range of operating regimes using only passive, non-consuming mechanisms. The versatility of the new turbine model leads to a large increase of the converted energy rate, up to 35%. The fluid/elasticity mechanisms involved for the reconfiguration capability of the new blades are analysed in detail, using experimental observations and modelling.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/117742017-01-01T00:00:00ZCOGNET, VincentCOURRECH DU PONT, SylvainDOBREV, IvanMASSOUH, FawazTHIRIA, BenjaminWind energy is becoming a significant alternative solution for future energy production. Modern turbines now benefit from engineering expertise, and a large variety of different models exists, depending on the context and needs. However, classical wind turbines are designed to operate within a narrow zone centred around their optimal working point. This limitation prevents the use of sites with variable wind to harvest energy, involving significant energetic and economic losses. Here, we present a new type of bioinspired wind turbine using elastic blades, which passively deform through the air loading and centrifugal effects. This work is inspired from recent studies on insect flight and plant reconfiguration, which show the ability of elastic wings or leaves to adapt to the wind conditions and thereby to optimize performance. We show that in the context of energy production, the reconfiguration of the elastic blades significantly extends the range of operating regimes using only passive, non-consuming mechanisms. The versatility of the new turbine model leads to a large increase of the converted energy rate, up to 35%. The fluid/elasticity mechanisms involved for the reconfiguration capability of the new blades are analysed in detail, using experimental observations and modelling.Investigation of the Rotor Wake of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine under Yawed Condition
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/11715
Investigation of the Rotor Wake of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine under Yawed Condition
NOURA, Belhadj; DOBREV, Ivan; KERFAH, R.; MASSOUH, Fawaz; KHELLADI, Sofiane
The wake and the lack of existing velocity behind the wind turbine affect the energy production and the mechanical integrity of wind turbines downstream in the wind farms. This paper presents an investigation of the unsteady flow around a wind turbine under yawed condition. The simulations and experimental measures are made for the yaw angle rotor 30° and 0°. The wind velocity is 9.3 m/s and the rotation velocity rotor of the wind turbine in 1300, 1500 and 1800 rpm. The wind turbine rotor which is modeled is of a commercial wind turbine i.e. Rutland 503. The approach Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES) based on the SST turbulence model is used in the modeling of the flow. The solutions are obtained by using the solver which uses finite volume method. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) method is used in wind tunnel measurements in the experimental laboratory of the ENSAM Paris-Tech. The yawed downstream wake of the rotor is compared with that obtained by the experimental measurements. The results illustrate perfectly the development of the near and far wake of the rotor operation. It is observed that the upstream wind turbine yawed will have a positive impact on the power of the downstream turbine due the distance reduction of the downstream wake of the wind turbine. However the power losses are important for yawed wind turbine when compared with the wind turbine without yaw. The improved understanding of the unsteady environmental of the Horizontal Axis wind Turbine allows optimizing wind turbine structures and the number of wind turbines in wind farms.
Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/117152016-01-01T00:00:00ZNOURA, BelhadjDOBREV, IvanKERFAH, R.MASSOUH, FawazKHELLADI, SofianeThe wake and the lack of existing velocity behind the wind turbine affect the energy production and the mechanical integrity of wind turbines downstream in the wind farms. This paper presents an investigation of the unsteady flow around a wind turbine under yawed condition. The simulations and experimental measures are made for the yaw angle rotor 30° and 0°. The wind velocity is 9.3 m/s and the rotation velocity rotor of the wind turbine in 1300, 1500 and 1800 rpm. The wind turbine rotor which is modeled is of a commercial wind turbine i.e. Rutland 503. The approach Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES) based on the SST turbulence model is used in the modeling of the flow. The solutions are obtained by using the solver which uses finite volume method. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) method is used in wind tunnel measurements in the experimental laboratory of the ENSAM Paris-Tech. The yawed downstream wake of the rotor is compared with that obtained by the experimental measurements. The results illustrate perfectly the development of the near and far wake of the rotor operation. It is observed that the upstream wind turbine yawed will have a positive impact on the power of the downstream turbine due the distance reduction of the downstream wake of the wind turbine. However the power losses are important for yawed wind turbine when compared with the wind turbine without yaw. The improved understanding of the unsteady environmental of the Horizontal Axis wind Turbine allows optimizing wind turbine structures and the number of wind turbines in wind farms.Investigation of relationship between drag and lift coefficients for a generic car model
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/8899
Investigation of relationship between drag and lift coefficients for a generic car model
DOBREV, Ivan; MASSOUH, Fawaz
The paper presents a study of aerodynamic characteristics of a car, which has the simplified geometric shape, so called Ahmed body. Flow around the body and the influence of its rear slant angle on drag are widely studied by numerous researchers. However, small number of studies treats the relationship between drag and lift and this phenomenon is not fully understood. To clarify the relationship between lift and drag, experiments are conducted in the wind tunnel of ENSAM - Paris. The study is carried out for different rear slant angles in order to determine how the drag coefficient varies with lift. The results of experiments are completed by numerical simulations, which permit to obtain the detailed flow field around Ahmed body and to understand better the effect of rear slant angle on drag and lift coefficients.
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/88992014-01-01T00:00:00ZDOBREV, IvanMASSOUH, FawazThe paper presents a study of aerodynamic characteristics of a car, which has the simplified geometric shape, so called Ahmed body. Flow around the body and the influence of its rear slant angle on drag are widely studied by numerous researchers. However, small number of studies treats the relationship between drag and lift and this phenomenon is not fully understood. To clarify the relationship between lift and drag, experiments are conducted in the wind tunnel of ENSAM - Paris. The study is carried out for different rear slant angles in order to determine how the drag coefficient varies with lift. The results of experiments are completed by numerical simulations, which permit to obtain the detailed flow field around Ahmed body and to understand better the effect of rear slant angle on drag and lift coefficients.Approach for numerical modeling of airfoil dynamic stall
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/11888
Approach for numerical modeling of airfoil dynamic stall
VELKOVA, Cvetelina; DOBREV, Ivan; TODOROV, Michael; MASSOUH, Fawaz
The aim of the computational study is to present different approach for numerical modeling of airfoil dynamic stall as the airfoil is pitched at a constant rate from zero incidences to a high angle of attack. An application of the Detached-Eddy Simulation model on a NACA 0012 airfoil is presented. The DES model is a method for predicting turbulence in CFD computations, which combines a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method in the boundary layer with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in the free shear flow. (DES) turbulence model gives a good accuracy of the flow field because its solves an additional equation for turbulent Reynolds number in a shear stress transport version (SST), which solves a first equation for the turbulent energy K and a second equation for the specific turbulent dissipation rate w. The approach using DES turbulence model is effective because it gives better visualization of flow field, the unsteady separation flow and vortex shedding. Consequently the suggested approach is suitable and it can be used in prediction of dynamic stall phenomenon in the stage of helicopter rotors, wind turbine rotors and aircraft wings design purposes.
http://e-university.tu-sofia.bg/e-publ/files/882_BulTrans_12_Velkova.pdf
Sun, 01 Jan 2012 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/118882012-01-01T00:00:00ZVELKOVA, CvetelinaDOBREV, IvanTODOROV, MichaelMASSOUH, FawazThe aim of the computational study is to present different approach for numerical modeling of airfoil dynamic stall as the airfoil is pitched at a constant rate from zero incidences to a high angle of attack. An application of the Detached-Eddy Simulation model on a NACA 0012 airfoil is presented. The DES model is a method for predicting turbulence in CFD computations, which combines a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method in the boundary layer with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in the free shear flow. (DES) turbulence model gives a good accuracy of the flow field because its solves an additional equation for turbulent Reynolds number in a shear stress transport version (SST), which solves a first equation for the turbulent energy K and a second equation for the specific turbulent dissipation rate w. The approach using DES turbulence model is effective because it gives better visualization of flow field, the unsteady separation flow and vortex shedding. Consequently the suggested approach is suitable and it can be used in prediction of dynamic stall phenomenon in the stage of helicopter rotors, wind turbine rotors and aircraft wings design purposes.COMPUTATIONALLY INEXPENSIVE FREE VORTEX METHOD TO OBTAIN VORTEX CORE POSITION IN THE WAKE OF A HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/17839
COMPUTATIONALLY INEXPENSIVE FREE VORTEX METHOD TO OBTAIN VORTEX CORE POSITION IN THE WAKE OF A HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE
MEGHLAOUI, Issam; DOBREV, Ivan; MASSOUH, Fawaz; BENRETEM, A. Ouahab; KHALFA, Dalila
This work aims to develop a free wake model, allowing quick simulation of flow through a horizontal axis wind turbine. The rapidity of computation is particularly interesting when this aerodynamic model is integrated with complementary mechanical and electrical models in order to study the unsteady behavior of the complete chain of energy transfer in the wind turbine. The proposed model takes into account both the tangential and longitudinal vorticity of the vortex system formed behind the rotor. The employed vortex system replaces the helical wake close to the wind turbine by a series of vortex rings and the far wake by a semi-infinite vortex cylinder. By taking into account the root vortex, the proposed model is used to study the development of the near wake of a horizontal axis wind turbine for different speeds of rotation. The shape of the near wake as well as the position of the trailing vortices are compared with particle image velocimetry experimental results for a low-power wind turbine tested in the wind tunnel of Arts et Métiers-ParisTech. The model shows a good agreement between the calculation and the experience.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/178392017-01-01T00:00:00ZMEGHLAOUI, IssamDOBREV, IvanMASSOUH, FawazBENRETEM, A. OuahabKHALFA, DalilaThis work aims to develop a free wake model, allowing quick simulation of flow through a horizontal axis wind turbine. The rapidity of computation is particularly interesting when this aerodynamic model is integrated with complementary mechanical and electrical models in order to study the unsteady behavior of the complete chain of energy transfer in the wind turbine. The proposed model takes into account both the tangential and longitudinal vorticity of the vortex system formed behind the rotor. The employed vortex system replaces the helical wake close to the wind turbine by a series of vortex rings and the far wake by a semi-infinite vortex cylinder. By taking into account the root vortex, the proposed model is used to study the development of the near wake of a horizontal axis wind turbine for different speeds of rotation. The shape of the near wake as well as the position of the trailing vortices are compared with particle image velocimetry experimental results for a low-power wind turbine tested in the wind tunnel of Arts et Métiers-ParisTech. The model shows a good agreement between the calculation and the experience.Small wind turbine augmentation: Experimental investigations of shrouded- and twin-rotor wind turbine systems
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/18121
Small wind turbine augmentation: Experimental investigations of shrouded- and twin-rotor wind turbine systems
LIPIAN, Michal; DOBREV, Ivan; KARCZEWSKI, Maciej; MASSOUH, Fawaz; JOZWIK, Krzysztof
An increase in the efficiency of Small Wind Turbines (SWTs) by aerodynamic optimisation of the blade geometry is limited (low Reynolds number influence). Solutions such as the Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbine (DAWT) and the twin-rotor systems are of increasing interest. A diffuser promotes an increase in the wind mass flow rate through the turbine, whereas an auxiliary rotor enables extraction of the wind kinetic energy in the wake. The paper summarizes the measurements of wind turbine systems performance conducted at the Institute of Turbomachinery, Lodz University of Technology (IMP TUL). The research incorporated a spectrum of wind turbine configurations for open and shrouded, single- and twin-rotor systems. The objective was to compare the performance of the same rotor in different configurations. The influence of a low Reynolds number flow on the rotor performance is also discussed and quantified. The study shows that, while augmenting the wind turbine performance (as much as twofold increase), shrouding rises significantly the rotor loading. A remedy for that may be an application of the second rotor. Although it provides a rather modest efficiency increase (11–13% for the unshrouded-, 4–5% for shrouded turbine), it allows loads to be distributed more evenly on turbines.
Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/181212019-01-01T00:00:00ZLIPIAN, MichalDOBREV, IvanKARCZEWSKI, MaciejMASSOUH, FawazJOZWIK, KrzysztofAn increase in the efficiency of Small Wind Turbines (SWTs) by aerodynamic optimisation of the blade geometry is limited (low Reynolds number influence). Solutions such as the Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbine (DAWT) and the twin-rotor systems are of increasing interest. A diffuser promotes an increase in the wind mass flow rate through the turbine, whereas an auxiliary rotor enables extraction of the wind kinetic energy in the wake. The paper summarizes the measurements of wind turbine systems performance conducted at the Institute of Turbomachinery, Lodz University of Technology (IMP TUL). The research incorporated a spectrum of wind turbine configurations for open and shrouded, single- and twin-rotor systems. The objective was to compare the performance of the same rotor in different configurations. The influence of a low Reynolds number flow on the rotor performance is also discussed and quantified. The study shows that, while augmenting the wind turbine performance (as much as twofold increase), shrouding rises significantly the rotor loading. A remedy for that may be an application of the second rotor. Although it provides a rather modest efficiency increase (11–13% for the unshrouded-, 4–5% for shrouded turbine), it allows loads to be distributed more evenly on turbines.Experimental and numerical analysis of a novel Darrieus rotor with variable pitch mechanism at low TSR
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/17996
Experimental and numerical analysis of a novel Darrieus rotor with variable pitch mechanism at low TSR
ZOUZOU, B.; DOBREV, Ivan; MASSOUH, Fawaz; DIZENE, Rabah
The Darrieus vertical axis wind-turbine (VAWT) has been the subject of numerous recent studies aimed at improving its aerodynamic performance in order to locate it in urban areas. This article is devoted to the study of an original VAWT with variable-pitch and low tip speed ratio TSR which is favorable to noise reduction and can operate at low velocity wind. The aerodynamic performance of this turbine is studied experimentally in wind tunnel as well as by CFD. In order to obtain the 3D-flow field around the wind turbine rotor, the numerical simulations are performed by means of detached eddy simulation method (DES). The simulation of pitch variation is made possible by using sliding-mesh method. Thus a specially created program adapts the pitch depending on the blade azimuthal position during rotation. The obtained results show that adapted pitch blades are preferable because they permit to obtain a power coefficient Cp that rivals other VAWT in the case of . The maximum torque fluctuation during rotation is lower in the case of adapted variable-pitch compared to fixed-pitch and thus the maximum aerodynamic loads on the structure can be reduced. Moreover, the pitch adaptation leads to lower interaction effects between the upstream-blade wake and down-stream blades.
Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/179962019-01-01T00:00:00ZZOUZOU, B.DOBREV, IvanMASSOUH, FawazDIZENE, RabahThe Darrieus vertical axis wind-turbine (VAWT) has been the subject of numerous recent studies aimed at improving its aerodynamic performance in order to locate it in urban areas. This article is devoted to the study of an original VAWT with variable-pitch and low tip speed ratio TSR which is favorable to noise reduction and can operate at low velocity wind. The aerodynamic performance of this turbine is studied experimentally in wind tunnel as well as by CFD. In order to obtain the 3D-flow field around the wind turbine rotor, the numerical simulations are performed by means of detached eddy simulation method (DES). The simulation of pitch variation is made possible by using sliding-mesh method. Thus a specially created program adapts the pitch depending on the blade azimuthal position during rotation. The obtained results show that adapted pitch blades are preferable because they permit to obtain a power coefficient Cp that rivals other VAWT in the case of . The maximum torque fluctuation during rotation is lower in the case of adapted variable-pitch compared to fixed-pitch and thus the maximum aerodynamic loads on the structure can be reduced. Moreover, the pitch adaptation leads to lower interaction effects between the upstream-blade wake and down-stream blades.Investigation of wind turbine flow and wake
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/8928
Investigation of wind turbine flow and wake
MASSOUH, Fawaz; DOBREV, Ivan
This paper is dedicated to the investigation and analysis of wind turbine wake. An experimental work is undertaken in wind tunnel on a horizontal axis wind turbine model. The velocity field in the wake is measured using PIV with phase synchronization in order to relate velocity and vortices to the rotating blades. The tip vortices are investigated in successive azimuthal positions of the rotor. A specially developed algorithm based on the circulation maximum detects the positions of the vortex cores and permits to use conditional averaging technique. The analysis of obtained velocity fields enables to determine the vortex core diameter, the swirl velocity distribution and the vortex diffusion as functions of the vortex age. The quality of obtained results permits to use them as reference for the validation of numerical computations.
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/89282014-01-01T00:00:00ZMASSOUH, FawazDOBREV, IvanThis paper is dedicated to the investigation and analysis of wind turbine wake. An experimental work is undertaken in wind tunnel on a horizontal axis wind turbine model. The velocity field in the wake is measured using PIV with phase synchronization in order to relate velocity and vortices to the rotating blades. The tip vortices are investigated in successive azimuthal positions of the rotor. A specially developed algorithm based on the circulation maximum detects the positions of the vortex cores and permits to use conditional averaging technique. The analysis of obtained velocity fields enables to determine the vortex core diameter, the swirl velocity distribution and the vortex diffusion as functions of the vortex age. The quality of obtained results permits to use them as reference for the validation of numerical computations.