SAM
https://sam.ensam.eu:443
The DSpace digital repository system captures, stores, indexes, preserves, and distributes digital research material.Mon, 05 Aug 2024 10:42:43 GMT2024-08-05T10:42:43ZComparison of Optimized Control Strategies of a High-Speed Traction Machine with Five Phases and Bi-Harmonic Electromotive Force
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/11435
Comparison of Optimized Control Strategies of a High-Speed Traction Machine with Five Phases and Bi-Harmonic Electromotive Force
ZAHR, Hussein; GONG, Jinlin; SEMAIL, Eric; SCUILLER, Franck
The purpose of the paper is to present the potentialities in terms of the control of a new kind of PM synchronous machine. With five phases and electromotive forces whose first (E1) and third (E3) harmonics are of similar amplitude, the studied machine, so-called bi-harmonic, has properties that are interesting for traction machine payload. With three-phase machines, supplied by a mono-harmonic sinusoidal current, the weak number of freedom degrees limits the strategy of control for traction machines especially when voltage saturation occurs at high speeds. As the torque is managed for three-phase machines by a current with only one harmonic, flux weakening is necessary to increase speed when the voltage limitation is reached. The studied five-phase machine, thanks to the increase in the number of freedom degrees for control, aims to alleviate this fact. In his paper, three optimized control strategies are compared in terms of efficiency and associated torque/speed characteristics. These strategies take into account numerous constraints either from the supply (with limited voltage) or from the machine (with limited current densities and maximum acceptable copper, iron and permanent magnet losses). The obtained results prove the wide potentialities of such a kind of five-phase bi-harmonic machine in terms of control under constraints. It is thus shown that the classical Maximum Torque Per Ampere (MTPA) strategy developed for the three-phase machine is clearly not satisfying on the whole range of speed because of the presence of iron losses whose values can no more be neglected at high speeds. Two other strategies have been then proposed to be able to manage the compromises, at high speeds, between the high values of torque and efficiency under the constraints of admissible total losses either in the rotor or in the stator.
Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/114352016-01-01T00:00:00ZZAHR, HusseinGONG, JinlinSEMAIL, EricSCUILLER, FranckThe purpose of the paper is to present the potentialities in terms of the control of a new kind of PM synchronous machine. With five phases and electromotive forces whose first (E1) and third (E3) harmonics are of similar amplitude, the studied machine, so-called bi-harmonic, has properties that are interesting for traction machine payload. With three-phase machines, supplied by a mono-harmonic sinusoidal current, the weak number of freedom degrees limits the strategy of control for traction machines especially when voltage saturation occurs at high speeds. As the torque is managed for three-phase machines by a current with only one harmonic, flux weakening is necessary to increase speed when the voltage limitation is reached. The studied five-phase machine, thanks to the increase in the number of freedom degrees for control, aims to alleviate this fact. In his paper, three optimized control strategies are compared in terms of efficiency and associated torque/speed characteristics. These strategies take into account numerous constraints either from the supply (with limited voltage) or from the machine (with limited current densities and maximum acceptable copper, iron and permanent magnet losses). The obtained results prove the wide potentialities of such a kind of five-phase bi-harmonic machine in terms of control under constraints. It is thus shown that the classical Maximum Torque Per Ampere (MTPA) strategy developed for the three-phase machine is clearly not satisfying on the whole range of speed because of the presence of iron losses whose values can no more be neglected at high speeds. Two other strategies have been then proposed to be able to manage the compromises, at high speeds, between the high values of torque and efficiency under the constraints of admissible total losses either in the rotor or in the stator.Design Considerations of Five-Phase Machine with Double p/3p Polarity
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/13423
Design Considerations of Five-Phase Machine with Double p/3p Polarity
GONG, Jinlin; ZAHR, Hussein; TRABELSI, Mohamed; ASLAN, Bassel; SEMAIL, Eric; SCUILLER, Franck
In the context of traction drives with required torque transient capabilities and a classically wide flux weakening speed range, this paper gives design considerations of a particular Double-Polarity (DP) five-phase machine. Beyond its intrinsic fault tolerance due its five phases, its specificity is the ability to develop torques of comparable values under three kinds of supply: with only first, third or both first and third sinusoidal currents. This property, due to first (E1) and third (E3) harmonic electromotive forces (emf) of comparable values, gives more degrees of freedom for the control of the machine. Unlike three-phase sinusoidal machine, flux weakening is no more the unique solution when maximum voltage is reached. Thanks to the extra degrees of freedom in this kind of machines, more possibilities for the control of the torque and current supply can be applied. At first, elements for the choice of slots/poles combination of such DP machines are given. Then, in case of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (IPMSM), possible adaptations of the rotor are proposed in order to bring the double p/3p polarity property. The last design criterion considered is the level of eddy-current losses, important at high frequencies. For proof of the concept effectiveness, a prototype with a five-phase fractional-slot concentrated winding of 40 slots and 16/48 poles is presented with results from experimental set-up and Finite Element modeling. A comparison with equivalent no-fault-tolerant three-phase 24 slots /16 poles machines is also carried out.
Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/134232018-01-01T00:00:00ZGONG, JinlinZAHR, HusseinTRABELSI, MohamedASLAN, BasselSEMAIL, EricSCUILLER, FranckIn the context of traction drives with required torque transient capabilities and a classically wide flux weakening speed range, this paper gives design considerations of a particular Double-Polarity (DP) five-phase machine. Beyond its intrinsic fault tolerance due its five phases, its specificity is the ability to develop torques of comparable values under three kinds of supply: with only first, third or both first and third sinusoidal currents. This property, due to first (E1) and third (E3) harmonic electromotive forces (emf) of comparable values, gives more degrees of freedom for the control of the machine. Unlike three-phase sinusoidal machine, flux weakening is no more the unique solution when maximum voltage is reached. Thanks to the extra degrees of freedom in this kind of machines, more possibilities for the control of the torque and current supply can be applied. At first, elements for the choice of slots/poles combination of such DP machines are given. Then, in case of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (IPMSM), possible adaptations of the rotor are proposed in order to bring the double p/3p polarity property. The last design criterion considered is the level of eddy-current losses, important at high frequencies. For proof of the concept effectiveness, a prototype with a five-phase fractional-slot concentrated winding of 40 slots and 16/48 poles is presented with results from experimental set-up and Finite Element modeling. A comparison with equivalent no-fault-tolerant three-phase 24 slots /16 poles machines is also carried out.HIGH SPEED FUNCTIONALITY OPTIMIZATION OF FIVE-PHASE PM MACHINE USING 3RD HARMONIC CURRENT
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/7355
HIGH SPEED FUNCTIONALITY OPTIMIZATION OF FIVE-PHASE PM MACHINE USING 3RD HARMONIC CURRENT
GONG, Jinlin; ASLAN, Bassel; GILLON, Frédéric; SEMAIL, Eric
Some surrogate-assisted optimization techniques are applied in order to improve the performances of a 5-phase Permanent Magnet (PM) machine in the context of a complex model requiring computation time. An optimal control of four independent currents is proposed in order to minimize the total losses with the respect of functioning constraints. Moreover, some geometrical parameters are added to the optimization process allowing a co-design between control and dimensioning. The effectiveness of the method allows solving the challenge which consists in taking into account inside the control strategy the eddy-current losses in magnets and iron. In fact, magnet losses are a critical point to protect the machine from demagnetization in flux-weakening region. But these losses, which highly depend on magnetic state of the machine, must be calculated by Finite Element Method (FEM) to be accurate. The FEM has the drawback to be time consuming. It is why, a direct optimization using FEM is critical. The response surface method (RSM) and the Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) algorithm consist in approximating the FEM by a surrogate model used directly or indirectly in the optimization process. The optimal results proved the interest of the both methods in this context
This project was supported by the Laboratory of Electrical Engineering and Power Electronics (L2EP) France. It is a successive cooperation project between the control team and optimization team of the laboratory .
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/73552014-01-01T00:00:00ZGONG, JinlinASLAN, BasselGILLON, FrédéricSEMAIL, EricSome surrogate-assisted optimization techniques are applied in order to improve the performances of a 5-phase Permanent Magnet (PM) machine in the context of a complex model requiring computation time. An optimal control of four independent currents is proposed in order to minimize the total losses with the respect of functioning constraints. Moreover, some geometrical parameters are added to the optimization process allowing a co-design between control and dimensioning. The effectiveness of the method allows solving the challenge which consists in taking into account inside the control strategy the eddy-current losses in magnets and iron. In fact, magnet losses are a critical point to protect the machine from demagnetization in flux-weakening region. But these losses, which highly depend on magnetic state of the machine, must be calculated by Finite Element Method (FEM) to be accurate. The FEM has the drawback to be time consuming. It is why, a direct optimization using FEM is critical. The response surface method (RSM) and the Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) algorithm consist in approximating the FEM by a surrogate model used directly or indirectly in the optimization process. The optimal results proved the interest of the both methods in this contextFault Tolerant 7-phase Hybrid Excitation Permanent Magnet Machine
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/15501
Fault Tolerant 7-phase Hybrid Excitation Permanent Magnet Machine
ZHAO, Benteng; GONG, Jinlin; VU, DUC TAN; SEMAIL, Eric; NGUYEN, Ngac Ky
This paper presents a novel 7-phase hybrid excitation permanent magnet (HEPM) machine with three rotors around one stator. Two rotors with PMs axially magnetized and the third rotor with PMs radially magnetized. Thanks to the addition of the third rotor, the inactive end-windings in the configuration with two rotors are then becoming active with a contribution to the torque with an increase of 30%. The impact of the third rotor on the torque density and on the pulsating torques is presented. The fault-tolerant characteristics of the proposed machine are also presented, which proves the interests of this machine for low speed applications.
Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/155012018-01-01T00:00:00ZZHAO, BentengGONG, JinlinVU, DUC TANSEMAIL, EricNGUYEN, Ngac KyThis paper presents a novel 7-phase hybrid excitation permanent magnet (HEPM) machine with three rotors around one stator. Two rotors with PMs axially magnetized and the third rotor with PMs radially magnetized. Thanks to the addition of the third rotor, the inactive end-windings in the configuration with two rotors are then becoming active with a contribution to the torque with an increase of 30%. The impact of the third rotor on the torque density and on the pulsating torques is presented. The fault-tolerant characteristics of the proposed machine are also presented, which proves the interests of this machine for low speed applications.Fault-tolerant Control for 7-phase Non-sinusoidal Permanent Magnet Machines with One Opened Phase
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/17208
Fault-tolerant Control for 7-phase Non-sinusoidal Permanent Magnet Machines with One Opened Phase
YANAGIHARA, Keitaro; VU, Duc Tan; GONG, Jinlin; SEMAIL, Eric; DOS SANTOS MORAES, Tiago José; NGUYEN, Ngac Ky
This paper presents new fault-tolerant control strategies for field-oriented control of 7-phase non-sinusoidal permanent magnet (PM) machines supplied by voltage source inverters (VSI). Single phase open-circuit fault is considered. The proposed strategies aim at finding waveforms of current references in natural frame in the way that post-fault currents create the same rotational magnetomotive force (MMF) as in healthy mode. Therefore, in the faulty mode, average torque can be maintained if no current limits are set. The proposed strategies are validated and compared to a previous strategy by numerical results in terms of joule losses, maximum RMS and peak phase currents, maximum phase voltage as well as their controllability with PI controllers.
Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/172082019-01-01T00:00:00ZYANAGIHARA, KeitaroVU, Duc TanGONG, JinlinSEMAIL, EricDOS SANTOS MORAES, Tiago JoséNGUYEN, Ngac KyThis paper presents new fault-tolerant control strategies for field-oriented control of 7-phase non-sinusoidal permanent magnet (PM) machines supplied by voltage source inverters (VSI). Single phase open-circuit fault is considered. The proposed strategies aim at finding waveforms of current references in natural frame in the way that post-fault currents create the same rotational magnetomotive force (MMF) as in healthy mode. Therefore, in the faulty mode, average torque can be maintained if no current limits are set. The proposed strategies are validated and compared to a previous strategy by numerical results in terms of joule losses, maximum RMS and peak phase currents, maximum phase voltage as well as their controllability with PI controllers.Torque Optimization of a Seven-Phase Bi-harmonic PMSM in Healthy and Degraded Mode
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/16155
Torque Optimization of a Seven-Phase Bi-harmonic PMSM in Healthy and Degraded Mode
ZHANG, Hao; ZHAO, Benteng; GONG, Jinlin; XU, Yanliang; VU, Duc Tan; SEMAIL, Eric; DOS SANTOS MORAES, Tiago José; NGUYEN, Ngac Ky
Compared to sinusoidal machines, a bi-harmonic machine (with only two harmonics of similar value in the electromotive force spectrum) can develop torque of comparable values under three kinds of supply: with only first or both first and third sinusoidal currents. Therefore, more degrees of freedom for the control of the machine can be achieved. In this paper, the specificities of a 7-phase bi-harmonic permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) are investigated under different control strategies, such as maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) at low speed and fluxweakening strategies at high speed, both in healthy and faulty operation modes. The fault with one open-circuited phase are taken into account. The current references are calculated in order to maximize the output torque under the constraint on both voltage and current. The performances of the considered machine is validated by numerical results.
Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/161552019-01-01T00:00:00ZZHANG, HaoZHAO, BentengGONG, JinlinXU, YanliangVU, Duc TanSEMAIL, EricDOS SANTOS MORAES, Tiago JoséNGUYEN, Ngac KyCompared to sinusoidal machines, a bi-harmonic machine (with only two harmonics of similar value in the electromotive force spectrum) can develop torque of comparable values under three kinds of supply: with only first or both first and third sinusoidal currents. Therefore, more degrees of freedom for the control of the machine can be achieved. In this paper, the specificities of a 7-phase bi-harmonic permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) are investigated under different control strategies, such as maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) at low speed and fluxweakening strategies at high speed, both in healthy and faulty operation modes. The fault with one open-circuited phase are taken into account. The current references are calculated in order to maximize the output torque under the constraint on both voltage and current. The performances of the considered machine is validated by numerical results.Quantitative Comparisons of Outer-Rotor Permanent Magnet Machines of Different Structures/Phases for In-Wheel Electrical Vehicle Application
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/23049
Quantitative Comparisons of Outer-Rotor Permanent Magnet Machines of Different Structures/Phases for In-Wheel Electrical Vehicle Application
GONG, Jinlin; ZHAO, Benteng; HUANG, Youxi; SEMAIL, Eric; NGUYEN, Ngac Ky
As one of the key components, low-speed direct-drive in-wheel machines with high compact volume and high torque density are important for the traction system of electric vehicles (EVs). This paper introduces four different types of outer-rotor permanent magnet motors for EVs, including one five-phase SPM machine, one three-phase IPM machine with V-shaped PMs, one seven-phase axial flux machine (AFM) of sandwich structure and finally one hybrid flux (radial and axial) machine with a third rotor with V-shaped PMs added to the AFM. Firstly, the design criteria and basic operation principle are compared and discussed. Then, the key properties are analyzed using the Finite Element Method (FEM). The electromagnetic properties of the four fractional slot tooth concentrated winding in-wheel motors with similar dimensions are quantitatively compared, including air-gap flux density, electromotive force, field weakening capability, torque density, losses, and fault tolerant capability. The results show that the multi-phase motors have high torque density and high fault tolerance and are suitable for direct drive applications in EVs.
Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/230492022-09-01T00:00:00ZGONG, JinlinZHAO, BentengHUANG, YouxiSEMAIL, EricNGUYEN, Ngac KyAs one of the key components, low-speed direct-drive in-wheel machines with high compact volume and high torque density are important for the traction system of electric vehicles (EVs). This paper introduces four different types of outer-rotor permanent magnet motors for EVs, including one five-phase SPM machine, one three-phase IPM machine with V-shaped PMs, one seven-phase axial flux machine (AFM) of sandwich structure and finally one hybrid flux (radial and axial) machine with a third rotor with V-shaped PMs added to the AFM. Firstly, the design criteria and basic operation principle are compared and discussed. Then, the key properties are analyzed using the Finite Element Method (FEM). The electromagnetic properties of the four fractional slot tooth concentrated winding in-wheel motors with similar dimensions are quantitatively compared, including air-gap flux density, electromotive force, field weakening capability, torque density, losses, and fault tolerant capability. The results show that the multi-phase motors have high torque density and high fault tolerance and are suitable for direct drive applications in EVs.High Quality Sensorless Control Strategy for Seven-phase PMSM in Full Speed Range
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/24702
High Quality Sensorless Control Strategy for Seven-phase PMSM in Full Speed Range
WANG, Xiulin; GONG, Jinlin; HUANG, Youxi; SEMAIL, Eric; NGUYEN, Ngac Ky; PENG, Ling
At low speed, the traditional high frequency signal injection (HFSI) control strategy will lead to large torque ripple, and affect the estimation accuracy of the position/speed related to sensorless control algorithm, and finally lead to the problem of the system stability. Based on the characteristics of seven-phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM), this paper proposes a new sensorless control strategy in full speed range. In the zero/low speed range, HFSI method is applied to the 5th harmonic subspace, which reduce the torque ripple of the machine.. In the medium/high speed range, the sliding mode observer (SMO) is used in the 1 st harmonic subspace to estimate the speed and position of the machine. The influences between the two methods are effectively reduced when exchanging from zero/low speed to medium/high speed range. Moreover, the estimated position and speed is more accurate and the torque ripple is smaller with the proposed sensorless control strategy. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified by simulation results.
Wed, 01 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/247022023-11-01T00:00:00ZWANG, XiulinGONG, JinlinHUANG, YouxiSEMAIL, EricNGUYEN, Ngac KyPENG, LingAt low speed, the traditional high frequency signal injection (HFSI) control strategy will lead to large torque ripple, and affect the estimation accuracy of the position/speed related to sensorless control algorithm, and finally lead to the problem of the system stability. Based on the characteristics of seven-phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM), this paper proposes a new sensorless control strategy in full speed range. In the zero/low speed range, HFSI method is applied to the 5th harmonic subspace, which reduce the torque ripple of the machine.. In the medium/high speed range, the sliding mode observer (SMO) is used in the 1 st harmonic subspace to estimate the speed and position of the machine. The influences between the two methods are effectively reduced when exchanging from zero/low speed to medium/high speed range. Moreover, the estimated position and speed is more accurate and the torque ripple is smaller with the proposed sensorless control strategy. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified by simulation results.Seven-phase Axial And Radial Flux In-wheel Machine With Three Active Air Gaps
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/24708
Seven-phase Axial And Radial Flux In-wheel Machine With Three Active Air Gaps
GONG, Jinlin; ZHAO, Benteng; TAN, Fei; SEMAIL, Eric; NGUYEN, Ngac Ky; BRACIKOWSKI, Nicolas
For in-wheel machine, outer rotor machines appear as a natural solution. Practically these machines are either radial-flux with one rotor or axial-flux with two rotors. The paper is proposing a machine with three outer rotors with two different polarities in order to reduce useless end-windings while keeping an acceptable thickness for the radial-flux rotor and high torque quality. This Hybrid Flux Permanent Magnet original structure (named HFPM) is possible thanks to the use of seven phases. The third rotor can be considered as an option of an initial double-rotor axial-flux machine in order to increase the torque density. First, the machine structure and the winding design are presented; then, based on 3D finite element method, comparison between the two machines, with two or three rotors, are provided in terms of torque densities and qualities.
Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/247082022-09-01T00:00:00ZGONG, JinlinZHAO, BentengTAN, FeiSEMAIL, EricNGUYEN, Ngac KyBRACIKOWSKI, NicolasFor in-wheel machine, outer rotor machines appear as a natural solution. Practically these machines are either radial-flux with one rotor or axial-flux with two rotors. The paper is proposing a machine with three outer rotors with two different polarities in order to reduce useless end-windings while keeping an acceptable thickness for the radial-flux rotor and high torque quality. This Hybrid Flux Permanent Magnet original structure (named HFPM) is possible thanks to the use of seven phases. The third rotor can be considered as an option of an initial double-rotor axial-flux machine in order to increase the torque density. First, the machine structure and the winding design are presented; then, based on 3D finite element method, comparison between the two machines, with two or three rotors, are provided in terms of torque densities and qualities.