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http://hdl.handle.net/10985/18556
Dense-gas effects on compressible boundary-layer stability
GLOERFELT, Xavier; ROBINET, Jean-Christophe; SCIACOVELLI, Luca; CINNELLA, Paola; GRASSO, Francesco
A study of dense-gas effects on the stability of compressible boundary-layer flows is conducted. From the laminar similarity solution, the temperature variations are small due to the high specific heat of dense gases, leading to velocity profiles close to the incompressible ones. Concurrently, the complex thermodynamic properties of dense gases can lead to unconventional compressibility effects. In the subsonic regime, the Tollmien–Schlichting viscous mode is attenuated by compressibility effects and becomes preferentially skewed in line with the results based on the ideal-gas assumption. However, the absence of a generalized inflection point precludes the sustainability of the first mode by inviscid mechanisms. On the contrary, the viscous mode can be completely stable at supersonic speeds. At very high speeds, we have found instances of radiating supersonic instabilities with substantial amplification rates, i.e. waves that travel supersonically relative to the free-stream velocity. This acoustic mode has qualitatively similar features for various thermodynamic conditions and for different working fluids. This shows that the leading parameters governing the boundary-layer behaviour for the dense gas are the constant-pressure specific heat and, to a minor extent, the density-dependent viscosity. A satisfactory scaling of the mode characteristics is found to be proportional to the height of the layer near the wall that acts as a waveguide where acoustic waves may become trapped. This means that the supersonic mode has the same nature as Mack’s modes, even if its frequency for maximal amplification is greater. Direct numerical simulation accurately reproduces the development of the supersonic mode and emphasizes the radiation of the instability waves.
Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/185562020-01-01T00:00:00ZGLOERFELT, XavierROBINET, Jean-ChristopheSCIACOVELLI, LucaCINNELLA, PaolaGRASSO, FrancescoA study of dense-gas effects on the stability of compressible boundary-layer flows is conducted. From the laminar similarity solution, the temperature variations are small due to the high specific heat of dense gases, leading to velocity profiles close to the incompressible ones. Concurrently, the complex thermodynamic properties of dense gases can lead to unconventional compressibility effects. In the subsonic regime, the Tollmien–Schlichting viscous mode is attenuated by compressibility effects and becomes preferentially skewed in line with the results based on the ideal-gas assumption. However, the absence of a generalized inflection point precludes the sustainability of the first mode by inviscid mechanisms. On the contrary, the viscous mode can be completely stable at supersonic speeds. At very high speeds, we have found instances of radiating supersonic instabilities with substantial amplification rates, i.e. waves that travel supersonically relative to the free-stream velocity. This acoustic mode has qualitatively similar features for various thermodynamic conditions and for different working fluids. This shows that the leading parameters governing the boundary-layer behaviour for the dense gas are the constant-pressure specific heat and, to a minor extent, the density-dependent viscosity. A satisfactory scaling of the mode characteristics is found to be proportional to the height of the layer near the wall that acts as a waveguide where acoustic waves may become trapped. This means that the supersonic mode has the same nature as Mack’s modes, even if its frequency for maximal amplification is greater. Direct numerical simulation accurately reproduces the development of the supersonic mode and emphasizes the radiation of the instability waves.Small-scale dynamics of dense gas compressible homogeneous isotropic turbulence
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/15598
Small-scale dynamics of dense gas compressible homogeneous isotropic turbulence
SCIACOVELLI, Luca; CINNELLA, Paola; GRASSO, Francesco
The present paper investigates the influence of dense gases governed by complex equations of state on the dynamics of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. In particular, we investigate how differences due to the complex thermodynamic behaviour and transport properties affect the small-scale structures, viscous dissipation and enstrophy generation. To this end, we carry out direct numerical simulations of the compressible Navier–Stokes equations supplemented by advanced dense gas constitutive models. The dense gas considered in the study is a heavy fluorocarbon (PP11) that is shown to exhibit an inversion zone (i.e. a region where the fundamental derivative of gas dynamics Γ is negative) in its vapour phase, for pressures and temperatures of the order of magnitude of the critical ones. Simulations are carried out at various initial turbulent Mach numbers and for two different initial thermodynamic states, one immediately outside and the other inside the inversion zone. After investigating the influence of dense gas effects on the time evolution of mean turbulence properties, we focus on the statistical properties of turbulent structures. For that purpose we carry out an analysis in the plane of the second and third invariant of the deviatoric strain-rate tensor. The analysis shows a weakening of compressive structures and an enhancement of expanding ones. Strong expansion regions are found to be mostly populated by non-focal convergence structures typical of strong compression regions, in contrast with the perfect gas that is dominated by eddy-like structures. Additionally, the contribution of non-focal expanding structures to the dilatational dissipation is comparable to that of compressed structures. This is due to the occurrence of steep expansion fronts and possibly of expansion shocklets which contribute to enstrophy generation in strong expansion regions and that counterbalance enstrophy destruction by means of the eddy-like structures.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/155982017-01-01T00:00:00ZSCIACOVELLI, LucaCINNELLA, PaolaGRASSO, FrancescoThe present paper investigates the influence of dense gases governed by complex equations of state on the dynamics of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. In particular, we investigate how differences due to the complex thermodynamic behaviour and transport properties affect the small-scale structures, viscous dissipation and enstrophy generation. To this end, we carry out direct numerical simulations of the compressible Navier–Stokes equations supplemented by advanced dense gas constitutive models. The dense gas considered in the study is a heavy fluorocarbon (PP11) that is shown to exhibit an inversion zone (i.e. a region where the fundamental derivative of gas dynamics Γ is negative) in its vapour phase, for pressures and temperatures of the order of magnitude of the critical ones. Simulations are carried out at various initial turbulent Mach numbers and for two different initial thermodynamic states, one immediately outside and the other inside the inversion zone. After investigating the influence of dense gas effects on the time evolution of mean turbulence properties, we focus on the statistical properties of turbulent structures. For that purpose we carry out an analysis in the plane of the second and third invariant of the deviatoric strain-rate tensor. The analysis shows a weakening of compressive structures and an enhancement of expanding ones. Strong expansion regions are found to be mostly populated by non-focal convergence structures typical of strong compression regions, in contrast with the perfect gas that is dominated by eddy-like structures. Additionally, the contribution of non-focal expanding structures to the dilatational dissipation is comparable to that of compressed structures. This is due to the occurrence of steep expansion fronts and possibly of expansion shocklets which contribute to enstrophy generation in strong expansion regions and that counterbalance enstrophy destruction by means of the eddy-like structures.Early evolution of the compressible mixing layer issued from two turbulent streams
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10381
Early evolution of the compressible mixing layer issued from two turbulent streams
PIROZZOLI, Sergio; BERNARDINI, Matteo; MARIÉ, Simon; GRASSO, Francesco
Direct numerical simulation of the spatially developing mixing layer issuing from two turbulent streams past a splitter plate is carried out under mild compressibility conditions. The study mainly focuses on the early evolution of the mixing region, where transition occurs from a wake-like to a canonical mixing-layer-like behaviour, corresponding to the filling-up of the initial momentum deficit. The mixing layer is found to initially grow faster than linearly, and then at a sub-linear rate further downstream. The Reynolds stress components are in close agreement with reference experiments and follow a continued slow decay till the end of the computational domain. These observations are suggestive of the occurrence of incomplete similarity in the developing turbulent mixing layer. Coherent eddies are found to form in the close proximity of the splitter plate trailing edge, that are mainly organized in bands, initially skewed and then parallel to the spanwise direction. Dynamic mode decomposition is used to educe the dynamically relevant features, and it is found to be capable of singling out the coherent eddies responsible for mixing layer development.
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/103812015-01-01T00:00:00ZPIROZZOLI, SergioBERNARDINI, MatteoMARIÉ, SimonGRASSO, FrancescoDirect numerical simulation of the spatially developing mixing layer issuing from two turbulent streams past a splitter plate is carried out under mild compressibility conditions. The study mainly focuses on the early evolution of the mixing region, where transition occurs from a wake-like to a canonical mixing-layer-like behaviour, corresponding to the filling-up of the initial momentum deficit. The mixing layer is found to initially grow faster than linearly, and then at a sub-linear rate further downstream. The Reynolds stress components are in close agreement with reference experiments and follow a continued slow decay till the end of the computational domain. These observations are suggestive of the occurrence of incomplete similarity in the developing turbulent mixing layer. Coherent eddies are found to form in the close proximity of the splitter plate trailing edge, that are mainly organized in bands, initially skewed and then parallel to the spanwise direction. Dynamic mode decomposition is used to educe the dynamically relevant features, and it is found to be capable of singling out the coherent eddies responsible for mixing layer development.Dense gas effects in inviscid homogeneous isotropic turbulence
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/15675
Dense gas effects in inviscid homogeneous isotropic turbulence
SCIACOVELLI, Luca; CINNELLA, Paola; CONTENT, C.; GRASSO, Francesco
A detailed numerical study of the influence of dense gas effects on the large-scale dynamics of decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence is carried out by using the van der Waals gas model. More specifically, we focus on dense gases of the Bethe–Zel’dovich–Thompson type, which may exhibit non-classical nonlinearities in the transonic and supersonic flow regimes, under suitable thermodynamic conditions. The simulations are based on the inviscid conservation equations, solved by means of a ninth-order numerical scheme. The simulations rely on the numerical viscosity of the scheme to dissipate energy at the finest scales, while leaving the larger scales mostly unaffected. The results are systematically compared with those obtained for a perfect gas. Dense gas effects are found to have a significant influence on the time evolution of the average and root mean square (r.m.s.) of the thermodynamic properties for flows characterized by sufficiently high initial turbulent Mach numbers (above 0.5), whereas the influence on kinematic properties, such as the kinetic energy and the vorticity, are smaller. However, the flow dilatational behaviour is very different, due to the non-classical variation of the speed of sound in flow regions where the dense gas is characterized by a value of the fundamental derivative of the gas dynamics (a measure of the variation of the speed of sound in isentropic compressions) smaller than one or even negative. The most significant differences between the perfect and the dense gas case are found for the repartition of dilatation levels in the flow field. For the perfect gas, strong compressions occupy a much larger volume fraction than expansion regions, leading to probability distributions of the velocity divergence highly skewed toward negative values. For the dense gas, the volume fractions occupied by strong expansion and compression regions are much more balanced; moreover, strong expansion regions are characterized by sheet-like structures, unlike the perfect gas which exhibits tubular structures. In strong compression regions, where compression shocklets may occur, both the dense and the perfect gas exhibit sheet-like structures. This suggests the possibility that expansion eddy shocklets may appear in the dense gas. This hypothesis is also supported by the fact that, in dense gas, vorticity is created with equal probability in strong compression and expansion regions, whereas for a perfect gas, vorticity is more likely to be created in the strong compression ones.
Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/156752016-01-01T00:00:00ZSCIACOVELLI, LucaCINNELLA, PaolaCONTENT, C.GRASSO, FrancescoA detailed numerical study of the influence of dense gas effects on the large-scale dynamics of decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence is carried out by using the van der Waals gas model. More specifically, we focus on dense gases of the Bethe–Zel’dovich–Thompson type, which may exhibit non-classical nonlinearities in the transonic and supersonic flow regimes, under suitable thermodynamic conditions. The simulations are based on the inviscid conservation equations, solved by means of a ninth-order numerical scheme. The simulations rely on the numerical viscosity of the scheme to dissipate energy at the finest scales, while leaving the larger scales mostly unaffected. The results are systematically compared with those obtained for a perfect gas. Dense gas effects are found to have a significant influence on the time evolution of the average and root mean square (r.m.s.) of the thermodynamic properties for flows characterized by sufficiently high initial turbulent Mach numbers (above 0.5), whereas the influence on kinematic properties, such as the kinetic energy and the vorticity, are smaller. However, the flow dilatational behaviour is very different, due to the non-classical variation of the speed of sound in flow regions where the dense gas is characterized by a value of the fundamental derivative of the gas dynamics (a measure of the variation of the speed of sound in isentropic compressions) smaller than one or even negative. The most significant differences between the perfect and the dense gas case are found for the repartition of dilatation levels in the flow field. For the perfect gas, strong compressions occupy a much larger volume fraction than expansion regions, leading to probability distributions of the velocity divergence highly skewed toward negative values. For the dense gas, the volume fractions occupied by strong expansion and compression regions are much more balanced; moreover, strong expansion regions are characterized by sheet-like structures, unlike the perfect gas which exhibits tubular structures. In strong compression regions, where compression shocklets may occur, both the dense and the perfect gas exhibit sheet-like structures. This suggests the possibility that expansion eddy shocklets may appear in the dense gas. This hypothesis is also supported by the fact that, in dense gas, vorticity is created with equal probability in strong compression and expansion regions, whereas for a perfect gas, vorticity is more likely to be created in the strong compression ones.Simulation of Viscous Fingering Instability by the Lattice Boltzmann Method
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/19696
Simulation of Viscous Fingering Instability by the Lattice Boltzmann Method
VIENNE, Lucien; MARIE, Simon; GRASSO, Francesco
The viscous fingering instability is successfully simulated within a lattice Boltzmann framework. Each species of the mixture is governed by its own kinetic equation and a force takes into account the diffusion between species. The influence of the porous medium is mimicked by using the gray lattice Boltzmann model or the Brinkman force model. In this study, both representations of the porous medium yield equivalent results. Then a physical analysis of the instability is performed and two different dynamical behaviour are stated and discussed. Finally, it is observed that a high Péclet number intensify the instability and the viscous dissipation stemming from the Darcy-Brinkman equations delay the development of the fingers in the case of large effective viscosity.
Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/196962019-01-01T00:00:00ZVIENNE, LucienMARIE, SimonGRASSO, FrancescoThe viscous fingering instability is successfully simulated within a lattice Boltzmann framework. Each species of the mixture is governed by its own kinetic equation and a force takes into account the diffusion between species. The influence of the porous medium is mimicked by using the gray lattice Boltzmann model or the Brinkman force model. In this study, both representations of the porous medium yield equivalent results. Then a physical analysis of the instability is performed and two different dynamical behaviour are stated and discussed. Finally, it is observed that a high Péclet number intensify the instability and the viscous dissipation stemming from the Darcy-Brinkman equations delay the development of the fingers in the case of large effective viscosity.Numerical Investigation of High‑Speed Turbulent Boundary Layers of Dense Gases
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/21896
Numerical Investigation of High‑Speed Turbulent Boundary Layers of Dense Gases
SCIACOVELLI, Luca; GLOERFELT, Xavier; PASSIATORE, Donatella; CINNELLA, Paola; GRASSO, Francesco
High-speed turbulent boundary layers of a dense gas (PP11) and a perfect gas (air) over flat plates are investigated by means of direct numerical simulations and large eddy simulations. The thermodynamic conditions of the incoming flow are chosen to highlight dense gas effects, and laminar-to-turbulent transition is triggered by suction and blowing. In the paper, the behavior of the fully developed turbulent flow region is investigated. Due to the low characteristic Eckert number of dense gas flows ( Ec = U2
∞∕cp,∞T∞ ), the mean velocity profiles are largely insensitive to the Mach number and very close to the incompressible
case even at high speeds. Second-order velocity statistics are also weakly affected by the flow Mach number and the velocity spectra are characterized by a secondary peak in the outer region of the boundary layer because of the higher local friction Reynolds number. Despite the incompressible-like velocity and Reynolds-stress profiles, the strongly nonideal
thermodynamic and transport-property behavior of the dense gas results in unconventional distributions of the fluctuating thermo-physical quantities. Specifically, density and viscosity fluctuations reach a peak close to the wall, instead of vanishing as in perfect
gas flows. Additionally, dense gas boundary layers exhibit higher values of the fluctuating Mach number and velocity divergence and a larger dilatational-to-solenoidal dissipation ratio in the near-wall region, which represents a major deviation from high-Mach-number perfect gas boundary layers. Other significant deviations are represented by the more symmetric probability distributions of fluctuating quantities such as the density and velocity divergence, due to the more balanced occurrence of strong expansion and compression events.
Sun, 01 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/218962020-03-01T00:00:00ZSCIACOVELLI, LucaGLOERFELT, XavierPASSIATORE, DonatellaCINNELLA, PaolaGRASSO, FrancescoHigh-speed turbulent boundary layers of a dense gas (PP11) and a perfect gas (air) over flat plates are investigated by means of direct numerical simulations and large eddy simulations. The thermodynamic conditions of the incoming flow are chosen to highlight dense gas effects, and laminar-to-turbulent transition is triggered by suction and blowing. In the paper, the behavior of the fully developed turbulent flow region is investigated. Due to the low characteristic Eckert number of dense gas flows ( Ec = U2
∞∕cp,∞T∞ ), the mean velocity profiles are largely insensitive to the Mach number and very close to the incompressible
case even at high speeds. Second-order velocity statistics are also weakly affected by the flow Mach number and the velocity spectra are characterized by a secondary peak in the outer region of the boundary layer because of the higher local friction Reynolds number. Despite the incompressible-like velocity and Reynolds-stress profiles, the strongly nonideal
thermodynamic and transport-property behavior of the dense gas results in unconventional distributions of the fluctuating thermo-physical quantities. Specifically, density and viscosity fluctuations reach a peak close to the wall, instead of vanishing as in perfect
gas flows. Additionally, dense gas boundary layers exhibit higher values of the fluctuating Mach number and velocity divergence and a larger dilatational-to-solenoidal dissipation ratio in the near-wall region, which represents a major deviation from high-Mach-number perfect gas boundary layers. Other significant deviations are represented by the more symmetric probability distributions of fluctuating quantities such as the density and velocity divergence, due to the more balanced occurrence of strong expansion and compression events.Optimal transient growth in compressible turbulent boundary layers
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/18612
Optimal transient growth in compressible turbulent boundary layers
ALIZARD, Frédéric; PIROZZOLI, Sergio; BERNARDINI, Matteo; GRASSO, Francesco
The structure of zero-pressure-gradient compressible turbulent boundary layers is analysed using the tools of optimal transient growth theory. The approach relies on the extension to compressible flows of the theoretical framework originally developed by Reynolds & Hussain (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 52, 1972, pp. 263–288) for incompressible flows. The model is based on a density-weighted triple decomposition of the instantaneous field into the contributions of the mean flow, the organized (coherent) motions and the disorganized background turbulent fluctuations. The mean field and the eddy viscosity characterizing the incoherent fluctuations are here obtained from a direct numerical simulation database. Most temporally amplified modes (optimal modes) are found to be consistent with scaling laws of turbulent boundary layers for both inner and outer layers, as well as in the logarithmic region, where they exhibit a self-similar spreading. Four free-stream Mach numbers are considered: $\mathit{Ma}_{\infty }=0.2$, 2, 3 and 4. Weak effects of compressibility on the characteristics length and the orientation angles are observed for both the inner- and the outer-layer modes. Furthermore, taking into account the effects of mean density variations, a universal behaviour is suggested for the optimal modes that populate the log layer, regardless of the Mach number. The relevance of the optimal modes in describing the near-wall layer dynamics and the eddies that populate the outer region is discussed.
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/186122015-01-01T00:00:00ZALIZARD, FrédéricPIROZZOLI, SergioBERNARDINI, MatteoGRASSO, FrancescoThe structure of zero-pressure-gradient compressible turbulent boundary layers is analysed using the tools of optimal transient growth theory. The approach relies on the extension to compressible flows of the theoretical framework originally developed by Reynolds & Hussain (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 52, 1972, pp. 263–288) for incompressible flows. The model is based on a density-weighted triple decomposition of the instantaneous field into the contributions of the mean flow, the organized (coherent) motions and the disorganized background turbulent fluctuations. The mean field and the eddy viscosity characterizing the incoherent fluctuations are here obtained from a direct numerical simulation database. Most temporally amplified modes (optimal modes) are found to be consistent with scaling laws of turbulent boundary layers for both inner and outer layers, as well as in the logarithmic region, where they exhibit a self-similar spreading. Four free-stream Mach numbers are considered: $\mathit{Ma}_{\infty }=0.2$, 2, 3 and 4. Weak effects of compressibility on the characteristics length and the orientation angles are observed for both the inner- and the outer-layer modes. Furthermore, taking into account the effects of mean density variations, a universal behaviour is suggested for the optimal modes that populate the log layer, regardless of the Mach number. The relevance of the optimal modes in describing the near-wall layer dynamics and the eddies that populate the outer region is discussed.Lattice Boltzmann method for miscible gases: A forcing-term approach
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/19695
Lattice Boltzmann method for miscible gases: A forcing-term approach
VIENNE, Lucien; MARIÉ, Simon; GRASSO, Francesco
A lattice Boltzmann method for miscible gases is presented. In this model, the standard lattice Boltzmann method is employed for each species composing the mixture. Diffusion interaction among species is taken into account by means of a force derived from kinetic theory of gases. Transport coefficients expressions are recovered from the kinetic theory. Species with dissimilar molar masses are simulated by also introducing a force. Finally, mixing dynamics is recovered as shown in different applications: an equimolar counterdiffusion case, Loschmidt's tube experiment, and an opposed jets flow simulation. Since collision is not altered, the present method can easily be introduced in any other lattice Boltzmann algorithms.
Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/196952019-01-01T00:00:00ZVIENNE, LucienMARIÉ, SimonGRASSO, FrancescoA lattice Boltzmann method for miscible gases is presented. In this model, the standard lattice Boltzmann method is employed for each species composing the mixture. Diffusion interaction among species is taken into account by means of a force derived from kinetic theory of gases. Transport coefficients expressions are recovered from the kinetic theory. Species with dissimilar molar masses are simulated by also introducing a force. Finally, mixing dynamics is recovered as shown in different applications: an equimolar counterdiffusion case, Loschmidt's tube experiment, and an opposed jets flow simulation. Since collision is not altered, the present method can easily be introduced in any other lattice Boltzmann algorithms.Numerical Investigation of Supersonic Dense-Gas Boundary Layers
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/23702
Numerical Investigation of Supersonic Dense-Gas Boundary Layers
SCIACOVELLI, Luca; PASSIATORE, Donatella; GLOERFELT, Xavier; CINNELLA, Paola; GRASSO, Francesco
A study of dense-gas effects on the laminar, transitional and turbulent characteristics of boundary layer flows is conducted. The laminar similarity solution shows that temperature variations are small due to the high specific heats of dense gases, leading to velocity profiles close to the incompressible ones. Nevertheless, the complex thermodynamics of the base flow has a major impact on unstable modes, which bear similarities with those obtained for a strongly cooled wall. Numerical simulations of spatially developing boundary layers yield turbulent statistics for the dense gas flow that remain closer to the incompressible regime than perfect gas ones despite the presence of strongly compressible structures.
Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/237022020-07-01T00:00:00ZSCIACOVELLI, LucaPASSIATORE, DonatellaGLOERFELT, XavierCINNELLA, PaolaGRASSO, FrancescoA study of dense-gas effects on the laminar, transitional and turbulent characteristics of boundary layer flows is conducted. The laminar similarity solution shows that temperature variations are small due to the high specific heats of dense gases, leading to velocity profiles close to the incompressible ones. Nevertheless, the complex thermodynamics of the base flow has a major impact on unstable modes, which bear similarities with those obtained for a strongly cooled wall. Numerical simulations of spatially developing boundary layers yield turbulent statistics for the dense gas flow that remain closer to the incompressible regime than perfect gas ones despite the presence of strongly compressible structures.Numerical Investigation of Hypersonic Boundary Layers of Perfect and Dense Gases
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/23691
Numerical Investigation of Hypersonic Boundary Layers of Perfect and Dense Gases
SCIACOVELLI, Luca; GLOERFELT, Xavier; CINNELLA, Paola; GRASSO, Francesco
Hypersonic turbulent boundary layers (HTBL) at Mach number M =6 of a dense gas (PP11) and a perfect gas (air) are investigated by means of Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS), from the laminar to fully turbulent state. The operating conditions are chosen in such a way to highlight dense gas effects, which profoundly alter the transition mechanisms and affect the turbulent flow properties significantly.
Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/236912020-05-01T00:00:00ZSCIACOVELLI, LucaGLOERFELT, XavierCINNELLA, PaolaGRASSO, FrancescoHypersonic turbulent boundary layers (HTBL) at Mach number M =6 of a dense gas (PP11) and a perfect gas (air) are investigated by means of Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS), from the laminar to fully turbulent state. The operating conditions are chosen in such a way to highlight dense gas effects, which profoundly alter the transition mechanisms and affect the turbulent flow properties significantly.