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http://hdl.handle.net/10985/13254
Control of DC bus voltage with a Modular Multilevel Converter
SAMIMI, Shabab; GRUSON, François; GUILLAUD, Xavier; DELARUE, Philippe
Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC) are becoming increasingly popular with the development of HVDC connection and, in the future, Multi Terminal DC grid. A lot of publications have been published about this topology these last years since it was first proposed. Few of them are addressing explicitly the two different roles that are held by this converter in a HVDC link: controlling the power or controlling the DC voltage level. Most of the time, the DC-bus voltage is supposed to be constant. In an HVDC link, this corresponds to the substation which controls the power. This paper addresses the cases when the voltage is regulated by the converter and presents the different ways of voltage control.
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/132542015-01-01T00:00:00ZSAMIMI, ShababGRUSON, FrançoisGUILLAUD, XavierDELARUE, PhilippeModular Multilevel Converters (MMC) are becoming increasingly popular with the development of HVDC connection and, in the future, Multi Terminal DC grid. A lot of publications have been published about this topology these last years since it was first proposed. Few of them are addressing explicitly the two different roles that are held by this converter in a HVDC link: controlling the power or controlling the DC voltage level. Most of the time, the DC-bus voltage is supposed to be constant. In an HVDC link, this corresponds to the substation which controls the power. This paper addresses the cases when the voltage is regulated by the converter and presents the different ways of voltage control.Impact of control algorithm solutions on Modular Multilevel Converters electrical waveforms and losses
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/13677
Impact of control algorithm solutions on Modular Multilevel Converters electrical waveforms and losses
GRUSON, François; FREYTES, Julian; SAMIMI, Shabab; DELARUE, Philippe; GUILLAUD, Xavier; COLAS, Frédéric; BELHAOUANE, Mohamed Moez
Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC) are becoming increasingly popular with the development of HVDC connection and, in the future, Multi Terminal DC grid. A lot of publications have been published about this topology these last years since it was first proposed. Many of them deal with converter control methods, other address the method of estimating losses. Usually, the proposed losses estimation techniques are associated to simple control methods For VSC (Voltage Sources Converters) topology, the losses minimization is based on the limitation of the RMS currents values. This hypothesis is usually extended to the control of MMC, by limiting the differential currents to their DC component, without really being checked. This paper investigates the impact of two control algorithms variants on electrical quantities (currents, capacitor voltages ripple, losses). From the published results, it is shown that in some cases the usual choice is not the best one.
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/136772015-01-01T00:00:00ZGRUSON, FrançoisFREYTES, JulianSAMIMI, ShababDELARUE, PhilippeGUILLAUD, XavierCOLAS, FrédéricBELHAOUANE, Mohamed MoezModular Multilevel Converters (MMC) are becoming increasingly popular with the development of HVDC connection and, in the future, Multi Terminal DC grid. A lot of publications have been published about this topology these last years since it was first proposed. Many of them deal with converter control methods, other address the method of estimating losses. Usually, the proposed losses estimation techniques are associated to simple control methods For VSC (Voltage Sources Converters) topology, the losses minimization is based on the limitation of the RMS currents values. This hypothesis is usually extended to the control of MMC, by limiting the differential currents to their DC component, without really being checked. This paper investigates the impact of two control algorithms variants on electrical quantities (currents, capacitor voltages ripple, losses). From the published results, it is shown that in some cases the usual choice is not the best one.Energetic Macroscopic Representati on and Inversion Based Control of a Modular Multilevel Converter.
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10045
Energetic Macroscopic Representati on and Inversion Based Control of a Modular Multilevel Converter.
DELARUE, Philippe; GRUSON, François; GUILLAUD, Xavier
This papers deals with the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC). This structure is a real breakthrough which allows transmitting huge amount of power in DC link. In the last ten years, lots of papers have been written but most of them study some intuitive control algorithms. This paper proposes a formal analysis of MMC model which leads to the design of a control algorithm thanks to the inversion of the model. The Energetic Macroscopic Representation is used for achieving this goal. All the states variables are controlled to manage the energy of the system, avoid some instable operational points and determine clearly all the dynamics of the different loops of the system.
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/100452014-01-01T00:00:00ZDELARUE, PhilippeGRUSON, FrançoisGUILLAUD, XavierThis papers deals with the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC). This structure is a real breakthrough which allows transmitting huge amount of power in DC link. In the last ten years, lots of papers have been written but most of them study some intuitive control algorithms. This paper proposes a formal analysis of MMC model which leads to the design of a control algorithm thanks to the inversion of the model. The Energetic Macroscopic Representation is used for achieving this goal. All the states variables are controlled to manage the energy of the system, avoid some instable operational points and determine clearly all the dynamics of the different loops of the system.A Simple Carrier-Based Modulation for the SVM of the Matrix Converter
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6748
A Simple Carrier-Based Modulation for the SVM of the Matrix Converter
GRUSON, François; LE MOIGNE, Philippe; DELARUE, Philippe; VIDET, Arnaud; CIMETIERE, Xavier; ARPILLIERE, Michel
Today, industry has not fully embraced the matrix converter solution. One important reason is its high control complexity. It is therefore relevant to propose a simpler but efficient modulation scheme, similar as three phase voltage source inverter modulators with the well-known symmetrical carrier-based ones. The modulation presented in this paper is equivalent to a particular space vector modulation (SVM) and takes into account harmonics and unbalanced input voltages, with the same maximum voltage transfer ratio (86%). The aim of this work is to propose a simple and general pulse width-modulation method using carrier-based modulator for an easier matrix converter control. Furthermore, a simple duty cycle calculation method is used, based on a virtual matrix converter. Finally, simulations and experimentations are presented to validate this simple, original and efficient modulation concept equivalent to matrix converter SVM.
Tue, 01 Jan 2013 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/67482013-01-01T00:00:00ZGRUSON, FrançoisLE MOIGNE, PhilippeDELARUE, PhilippeVIDET, ArnaudCIMETIERE, XavierARPILLIERE, MichelToday, industry has not fully embraced the matrix converter solution. One important reason is its high control complexity. It is therefore relevant to propose a simpler but efficient modulation scheme, similar as three phase voltage source inverter modulators with the well-known symmetrical carrier-based ones. The modulation presented in this paper is equivalent to a particular space vector modulation (SVM) and takes into account harmonics and unbalanced input voltages, with the same maximum voltage transfer ratio (86%). The aim of this work is to propose a simple and general pulse width-modulation method using carrier-based modulator for an easier matrix converter control. Furthermore, a simple duty cycle calculation method is used, based on a virtual matrix converter. Finally, simulations and experimentations are presented to validate this simple, original and efficient modulation concept equivalent to matrix converter SVM.Modulation Généralisée et Amélioration du rendement des Convertisseurs Matriciels
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6744
Modulation Généralisée et Amélioration du rendement des Convertisseurs Matriciels
GRUSON, François; LE MOIGNE, Philippe; DELARUE, Philippe; VIDET, Arnaud; LOIZELET, Philippe; CIMETIERE, Xavier
Cet article présente une amélioration des performances d’un convertisseur matriciel par utilisation de degrés de liberté naturellement accessible au niveau de la matrice de conversion. Ces améliorations sont réalisées à partir d’un modulateur simple et synthétique, basé sur l’introduction d’un convertisseur virtuel. On présente tout d'abord une méthode de généralisation de la matrice de conversion obtenue avec une modulation classique. Cette matrice est modifiée afin d’induire la modification de la phase de roue libre. Un choix approprié est effectué et on réalise alors l’étude des pertes silicium du convertisseur. Les performances du convertisseur utilisant la modulation proposée et celle utilisée classiquement dans la littérature sont comparées. La méthodologie de calcul des pertes silicium est présentée ainsi que la validation fonctionnelle de cette nouvelle modulation par des relevés expérimentaux réalisés sur un prototype laboratoire.
Sun, 01 Jan 2012 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/67442012-01-01T00:00:00ZGRUSON, FrançoisLE MOIGNE, PhilippeDELARUE, PhilippeVIDET, ArnaudLOIZELET, PhilippeCIMETIERE, XavierCet article présente une amélioration des performances d’un convertisseur matriciel par utilisation de degrés de liberté naturellement accessible au niveau de la matrice de conversion. Ces améliorations sont réalisées à partir d’un modulateur simple et synthétique, basé sur l’introduction d’un convertisseur virtuel. On présente tout d'abord une méthode de généralisation de la matrice de conversion obtenue avec une modulation classique. Cette matrice est modifiée afin d’induire la modification de la phase de roue libre. Un choix approprié est effectué et on réalise alors l’étude des pertes silicium du convertisseur. Les performances du convertisseur utilisant la modulation proposée et celle utilisée classiquement dans la littérature sont comparées. La méthodologie de calcul des pertes silicium est présentée ainsi que la validation fonctionnelle de cette nouvelle modulation par des relevés expérimentaux réalisés sur un prototype laboratoire.Synthesis of different types of energy based controller for a Modular Multilevel Converter integrated in a HVDC link
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10783
Synthesis of different types of energy based controller for a Modular Multilevel Converter integrated in a HVDC link
SAMIMI, Shabab; GRUSON, François; DELARUE, Philippe; GUILLAUD, Xavier
Modular Multilevel Converters are becoming increasingly popular with the development of HVDC connection and, in the future, Multi Terminal DC grid. A lot of publications have been published about this topology these last years since it was first proposed. Few of them are addressing explicitly the 2 different roles that are held by this converter in a HVDC link: controlling the power or controlling the DC voltage level. Moreover, for a given function, different ways of controlling this converter may be considered. This paper proposes an overview of the different solutions for controlling the MMC and proposes a methodology to synthesize the control architecture.
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/107832015-01-01T00:00:00ZSAMIMI, ShababGRUSON, FrançoisDELARUE, PhilippeGUILLAUD, XavierModular Multilevel Converters are becoming increasingly popular with the development of HVDC connection and, in the future, Multi Terminal DC grid. A lot of publications have been published about this topology these last years since it was first proposed. Few of them are addressing explicitly the 2 different roles that are held by this converter in a HVDC link: controlling the power or controlling the DC voltage level. Moreover, for a given function, different ways of controlling this converter may be considered. This paper proposes an overview of the different solutions for controlling the MMC and proposes a methodology to synthesize the control architecture.Losses estimation method by simulation for the Modular Multilevel Converter
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/13255
Losses estimation method by simulation for the Modular Multilevel Converter
FREYTES, Julian; GRUSON, François; DELARUE, Philippe; COLAS, Frédéric; GUILLAUD, Xavier
The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is the most promising solution to connect HVDC grids to a HVAC one. The installation of new equipment in the HVDC transmission systems requires an economic study where the power losses play an important role. Since the MMC it is composed of a high number of semiconductors components, the losses estimation becomes complex. This paper proposes a simulation based method for the losses estimation that combines the MMC averaged and instantaneous model in a modular way. The method brings the possibility to perform comparisons in terms of losses for different modules technologies as well as different high and low level control techniques. Also the losses characteristics within the MMC are also discussed and the passive losses are firstly taken into account
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/132552015-01-01T00:00:00ZFREYTES, JulianGRUSON, FrançoisDELARUE, PhilippeCOLAS, FrédéricGUILLAUD, XavierThe modular multilevel converter (MMC) is the most promising solution to connect HVDC grids to a HVAC one. The installation of new equipment in the HVDC transmission systems requires an economic study where the power losses play an important role. Since the MMC it is composed of a high number of semiconductors components, the losses estimation becomes complex. This paper proposes a simulation based method for the losses estimation that combines the MMC averaged and instantaneous model in a modular way. The method brings the possibility to perform comparisons in terms of losses for different modules technologies as well as different high and low level control techniques. Also the losses characteristics within the MMC are also discussed and the passive losses are firstly taken into accountMMC Stored Energy Participation to the DC Bus Voltage Control in an HVDC Link
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/12895
MMC Stored Energy Participation to the DC Bus Voltage Control in an HVDC Link
SAMIMI, Shabab; GRUSON, François; DELARUE, Philippe; COLAS, Frédéric; BELHAOUANE, Mohamed Moez; GUILLAUD, Xavier
The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is becoming a promising converter technology for HVDC transmission systems. Contrary to the conventional two- or three-level VSC-HVDC links, no capacitors are connected directly on the dc bus in an MMC-HVDC link. Therefore, in such an HVDC link, the dc bus voltage may be much more volatile than in a conventional VSC-HVDC link. In this paper, a connection between the dc bus voltage level and the stored energy inside the MMC is proposed in order to greatly improve the dynamic behavior in case of transients. EMT simulation results illustrate this interesting property on an HVDC link study case.
Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/128952016-01-01T00:00:00ZSAMIMI, ShababGRUSON, FrançoisDELARUE, PhilippeCOLAS, FrédéricBELHAOUANE, Mohamed MoezGUILLAUD, XavierThe modular multilevel converter (MMC) is becoming a promising converter technology for HVDC transmission systems. Contrary to the conventional two- or three-level VSC-HVDC links, no capacitors are connected directly on the dc bus in an MMC-HVDC link. Therefore, in such an HVDC link, the dc bus voltage may be much more volatile than in a conventional VSC-HVDC link. In this paper, a connection between the dc bus voltage level and the stored energy inside the MMC is proposed in order to greatly improve the dynamic behavior in case of transients. EMT simulation results illustrate this interesting property on an HVDC link study case.Improving Small-Signal Stability of an MMC With CCSC by Control of the Internally Stored Energy
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/12894
Improving Small-Signal Stability of an MMC With CCSC by Control of the Internally Stored Energy
FREYTES, Julian; BERGNA, Gilbert; JON ARE, SUUL; D'ARCO, Salvatore; GRUSON, François; COLAS, Frédéric; SAAD, Hani; GUILLAUD, Xavier
The DC-side dynamics of Modular Multilevel Converters (MMCs) can be prone to poorly damped oscillations or stability problems when the second harmonic components of the arm currents are mitigated by a Circulating Current Suppression Controller (CCSC). This paper demonstrates that the source of these oscillations is the uncontrolled interaction of the DC-side current and the internally stored energy of the MMC, as resulting from the CCSC. Stable operation and improved performance of the MMC control system can be ensured by introducing closed loop control of the energy and the DC-side current. The presented analysis relies on a detailed state-space model of the MMC which is formulated to obtain constant variables in steady state. The resulting state-space equations can be linearized to achieve a Linear Time Invariant (LTI) model, allowing for eigenvalue analysis of the small-signal dynamics of the MMC. Participation factor analysis is utilized to identify the source of the poorly damped DC-side oscillations, and indicates the suitability of introducing control of the internal capacitor voltage or the corresponding stored energy. An MMC connected to a DC power source with an equivalent capacitance, and operated with DC voltage droop in the active power flow control, is used as an example for the presented analysis. The developed small-signal models and the improvement in small-signal dynamics achieved by introducing control of the internally stored energy are verified by time-domain simulations in comparison to an EMT simulation model of an MMC with 400 sub-modules per arm.
Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/128942018-01-01T00:00:00ZFREYTES, JulianBERGNA, GilbertJON ARE, SUULD'ARCO, SalvatoreGRUSON, FrançoisCOLAS, FrédéricSAAD, HaniGUILLAUD, XavierThe DC-side dynamics of Modular Multilevel Converters (MMCs) can be prone to poorly damped oscillations or stability problems when the second harmonic components of the arm currents are mitigated by a Circulating Current Suppression Controller (CCSC). This paper demonstrates that the source of these oscillations is the uncontrolled interaction of the DC-side current and the internally stored energy of the MMC, as resulting from the CCSC. Stable operation and improved performance of the MMC control system can be ensured by introducing closed loop control of the energy and the DC-side current. The presented analysis relies on a detailed state-space model of the MMC which is formulated to obtain constant variables in steady state. The resulting state-space equations can be linearized to achieve a Linear Time Invariant (LTI) model, allowing for eigenvalue analysis of the small-signal dynamics of the MMC. Participation factor analysis is utilized to identify the source of the poorly damped DC-side oscillations, and indicates the suitability of introducing control of the internal capacitor voltage or the corresponding stored energy. An MMC connected to a DC power source with an equivalent capacitance, and operated with DC voltage droop in the active power flow control, is used as an example for the presented analysis. The developed small-signal models and the improvement in small-signal dynamics achieved by introducing control of the internally stored energy are verified by time-domain simulations in comparison to an EMT simulation model of an MMC with 400 sub-modules per arm.Design, implementation and testing of a Modular Multilevel Converter
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/12896
Design, implementation and testing of a Modular Multilevel Converter
GRUSON, François; KADRI, Riad; COLAS, Frédéric; GUILLAUD, Xavier; DELARUE, Philippe; BERGE, Marta; DENNETIERE, Sébastien; OULD BACHIR, Tarek
The Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is a power electronic structure used for high voltage adjustable speed drives applications as well as power transmission applications and high-voltage direct current. MMC structure presents many advantages such as modularity, the absence of a high voltage DC bus and very low switching frequency. It presents also some disadvantages such as modeling complexity and control due to the large number of semiconductors to control. The objectives of this paper are to present the methodology to design a laboratory MMC converter and its control system. This methodology is based on an intensive used of real-time simulation, to develop and test the control algorithm is proposed. This MMC prototype must be as realistic as possible to a full scale MMC, with a large number of sub-modules (i.e. 640 kV on the DC side, a rated power of 1 GW and 400 sub-modules). A control hardware integrating distributed processors (one for each arm) and a master control is presented. The protocols to validate sub-modules, arms and the converter are explained.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/128962017-01-01T00:00:00ZGRUSON, FrançoisKADRI, RiadCOLAS, FrédéricGUILLAUD, XavierDELARUE, PhilippeBERGE, MartaDENNETIERE, SébastienOULD BACHIR, TarekThe Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is a power electronic structure used for high voltage adjustable speed drives applications as well as power transmission applications and high-voltage direct current. MMC structure presents many advantages such as modularity, the absence of a high voltage DC bus and very low switching frequency. It presents also some disadvantages such as modeling complexity and control due to the large number of semiconductors to control. The objectives of this paper are to present the methodology to design a laboratory MMC converter and its control system. This methodology is based on an intensive used of real-time simulation, to develop and test the control algorithm is proposed. This MMC prototype must be as realistic as possible to a full scale MMC, with a large number of sub-modules (i.e. 640 kV on the DC side, a rated power of 1 GW and 400 sub-modules). A control hardware integrating distributed processors (one for each arm) and a master control is presented. The protocols to validate sub-modules, arms and the converter are explained.