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http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10783
Synthesis of different types of energy based controller for a Modular Multilevel Converter integrated in a HVDC link
SAMIMI, Shabab; DELARUE, Philippe; GUILLAUD, Xavier; GRUSON, Francois
Modular Multilevel Converters are becoming increasingly popular with the development of HVDC connection and, in the future, Multi Terminal DC grid. A lot of publications have been published about this topology these last years since it was first proposed. Few of them are addressing explicitly the 2 different roles that are held by this converter in a HVDC link: controlling the power or controlling the DC voltage level. Moreover, for a given function, different ways of controlling this converter may be considered. This paper proposes an overview of the different solutions for controlling the MMC and proposes a methodology to synthesize the control architecture.
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/107832015-01-01T00:00:00ZSAMIMI, ShababDELARUE, PhilippeGUILLAUD, XavierGRUSON, FrancoisModular Multilevel Converters are becoming increasingly popular with the development of HVDC connection and, in the future, Multi Terminal DC grid. A lot of publications have been published about this topology these last years since it was first proposed. Few of them are addressing explicitly the 2 different roles that are held by this converter in a HVDC link: controlling the power or controlling the DC voltage level. Moreover, for a given function, different ways of controlling this converter may be considered. This paper proposes an overview of the different solutions for controlling the MMC and proposes a methodology to synthesize the control architecture.MMC Stored Energy Participation to the DC Bus Voltage Control in an HVDC Link
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/12895
MMC Stored Energy Participation to the DC Bus Voltage Control in an HVDC Link
SAMIMI, Shabab; DELARUE, Philippe; COLAS, Frédéric; BELHAOUANE, Mohamed Moez; GUILLAUD, Xavier; GRUSON, Francois
The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is becoming a promising converter technology for HVDC transmission systems. Contrary to the conventional two- or three-level VSC-HVDC links, no capacitors are connected directly on the dc bus in an MMC-HVDC link. Therefore, in such an HVDC link, the dc bus voltage may be much more volatile than in a conventional VSC-HVDC link. In this paper, a connection between the dc bus voltage level and the stored energy inside the MMC is proposed in order to greatly improve the dynamic behavior in case of transients. EMT simulation results illustrate this interesting property on an HVDC link study case.
Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/128952016-01-01T00:00:00ZSAMIMI, ShababDELARUE, PhilippeCOLAS, FrédéricBELHAOUANE, Mohamed MoezGUILLAUD, XavierGRUSON, FrancoisThe modular multilevel converter (MMC) is becoming a promising converter technology for HVDC transmission systems. Contrary to the conventional two- or three-level VSC-HVDC links, no capacitors are connected directly on the dc bus in an MMC-HVDC link. Therefore, in such an HVDC link, the dc bus voltage may be much more volatile than in a conventional VSC-HVDC link. In this paper, a connection between the dc bus voltage level and the stored energy inside the MMC is proposed in order to greatly improve the dynamic behavior in case of transients. EMT simulation results illustrate this interesting property on an HVDC link study case.Design, implementation and testing of a Modular Multilevel Converter
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/12896
Design, implementation and testing of a Modular Multilevel Converter
KADRI, Riad; COLAS, Frédéric; GUILLAUD, Xavier; DELARUE, Philippe; BERGE, Marta; DENNETIERE, Sébastien; OULD BACHIR, Tarek; GRUSON, Francois
The Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is a power electronic structure used for high voltage adjustable speed drives applications as well as power transmission applications and high-voltage direct current. MMC structure presents many advantages such as modularity, the absence of a high voltage DC bus and very low switching frequency. It presents also some disadvantages such as modeling complexity and control due to the large number of semiconductors to control. The objectives of this paper are to present the methodology to design a laboratory MMC converter and its control system. This methodology is based on an intensive used of real-time simulation, to develop and test the control algorithm is proposed. This MMC prototype must be as realistic as possible to a full scale MMC, with a large number of sub-modules (i.e. 640 kV on the DC side, a rated power of 1 GW and 400 sub-modules). A control hardware integrating distributed processors (one for each arm) and a master control is presented. The protocols to validate sub-modules, arms and the converter are explained.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/128962017-01-01T00:00:00ZKADRI, RiadCOLAS, FrédéricGUILLAUD, XavierDELARUE, PhilippeBERGE, MartaDENNETIERE, SébastienOULD BACHIR, TarekGRUSON, FrancoisThe Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is a power electronic structure used for high voltage adjustable speed drives applications as well as power transmission applications and high-voltage direct current. MMC structure presents many advantages such as modularity, the absence of a high voltage DC bus and very low switching frequency. It presents also some disadvantages such as modeling complexity and control due to the large number of semiconductors to control. The objectives of this paper are to present the methodology to design a laboratory MMC converter and its control system. This methodology is based on an intensive used of real-time simulation, to develop and test the control algorithm is proposed. This MMC prototype must be as realistic as possible to a full scale MMC, with a large number of sub-modules (i.e. 640 kV on the DC side, a rated power of 1 GW and 400 sub-modules). A control hardware integrating distributed processors (one for each arm) and a master control is presented. The protocols to validate sub-modules, arms and the converter are explained.Improving Small-Signal Stability of an MMC With CCSC by Control of the Internally Stored Energy
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/12894
Improving Small-Signal Stability of an MMC With CCSC by Control of the Internally Stored Energy
FREYTES, Julian; BERGNA, Gilbert; JON ARE, SUUL; D'ARCO, Salvatore; COLAS, Frédéric; SAAD, Hani; GUILLAUD, Xavier; GRUSON, Francois
The DC-side dynamics of Modular Multilevel Converters (MMCs) can be prone to poorly damped oscillations or stability problems when the second harmonic components of the arm currents are mitigated by a Circulating Current Suppression Controller (CCSC). This paper demonstrates that the source of these oscillations is the uncontrolled interaction of the DC-side current and the internally stored energy of the MMC, as resulting from the CCSC. Stable operation and improved performance of the MMC control system can be ensured by introducing closed loop control of the energy and the DC-side current. The presented analysis relies on a detailed state-space model of the MMC which is formulated to obtain constant variables in steady state. The resulting state-space equations can be linearized to achieve a Linear Time Invariant (LTI) model, allowing for eigenvalue analysis of the small-signal dynamics of the MMC. Participation factor analysis is utilized to identify the source of the poorly damped DC-side oscillations, and indicates the suitability of introducing control of the internal capacitor voltage or the corresponding stored energy. An MMC connected to a DC power source with an equivalent capacitance, and operated with DC voltage droop in the active power flow control, is used as an example for the presented analysis. The developed small-signal models and the improvement in small-signal dynamics achieved by introducing control of the internally stored energy are verified by time-domain simulations in comparison to an EMT simulation model of an MMC with 400 sub-modules per arm.
Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/128942018-01-01T00:00:00ZFREYTES, JulianBERGNA, GilbertJON ARE, SUULD'ARCO, SalvatoreCOLAS, FrédéricSAAD, HaniGUILLAUD, XavierGRUSON, FrancoisThe DC-side dynamics of Modular Multilevel Converters (MMCs) can be prone to poorly damped oscillations or stability problems when the second harmonic components of the arm currents are mitigated by a Circulating Current Suppression Controller (CCSC). This paper demonstrates that the source of these oscillations is the uncontrolled interaction of the DC-side current and the internally stored energy of the MMC, as resulting from the CCSC. Stable operation and improved performance of the MMC control system can be ensured by introducing closed loop control of the energy and the DC-side current. The presented analysis relies on a detailed state-space model of the MMC which is formulated to obtain constant variables in steady state. The resulting state-space equations can be linearized to achieve a Linear Time Invariant (LTI) model, allowing for eigenvalue analysis of the small-signal dynamics of the MMC. Participation factor analysis is utilized to identify the source of the poorly damped DC-side oscillations, and indicates the suitability of introducing control of the internal capacitor voltage or the corresponding stored energy. An MMC connected to a DC power source with an equivalent capacitance, and operated with DC voltage droop in the active power flow control, is used as an example for the presented analysis. The developed small-signal models and the improvement in small-signal dynamics achieved by introducing control of the internally stored energy are verified by time-domain simulations in comparison to an EMT simulation model of an MMC with 400 sub-modules per arm.A Simple Carrier-Based Modulation for the SVM of the Matrix Converter
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6748
A Simple Carrier-Based Modulation for the SVM of the Matrix Converter
LE MOIGNE, Philippe; DELARUE, Philippe; VIDET, Arnaud; CIMETIERE, Xavier; ARPILLIERE, Michel; GRUSON, Francois
Today, industry has not fully embraced the matrix converter solution. One important reason is its high control complexity. It is therefore relevant to propose a simpler but efficient modulation scheme, similar as three phase voltage source inverter modulators with the well-known symmetrical carrier-based ones. The modulation presented in this paper is equivalent to a particular space vector modulation (SVM) and takes into account harmonics and unbalanced input voltages, with the same maximum voltage transfer ratio (86%). The aim of this work is to propose a simple and general pulse width-modulation method using carrier-based modulator for an easier matrix converter control. Furthermore, a simple duty cycle calculation method is used, based on a virtual matrix converter. Finally, simulations and experimentations are presented to validate this simple, original and efficient modulation concept equivalent to matrix converter SVM.
Tue, 01 Jan 2013 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/67482013-01-01T00:00:00ZLE MOIGNE, PhilippeDELARUE, PhilippeVIDET, ArnaudCIMETIERE, XavierARPILLIERE, MichelGRUSON, FrancoisToday, industry has not fully embraced the matrix converter solution. One important reason is its high control complexity. It is therefore relevant to propose a simpler but efficient modulation scheme, similar as three phase voltage source inverter modulators with the well-known symmetrical carrier-based ones. The modulation presented in this paper is equivalent to a particular space vector modulation (SVM) and takes into account harmonics and unbalanced input voltages, with the same maximum voltage transfer ratio (86%). The aim of this work is to propose a simple and general pulse width-modulation method using carrier-based modulator for an easier matrix converter control. Furthermore, a simple duty cycle calculation method is used, based on a virtual matrix converter. Finally, simulations and experimentations are presented to validate this simple, original and efficient modulation concept equivalent to matrix converter SVM.Energetic Macroscopic Representati on and Inversion Based Control of a Modular Multilevel Converter.
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10045
Energetic Macroscopic Representati on and Inversion Based Control of a Modular Multilevel Converter.
DELARUE, Philippe; GRUSON, Francois; GUILLAUD, Xavier
This papers deals with the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC). This structure is a real breakthrough which allows transmitting huge amount of power in DC link. In the last ten years, lots of papers have been written but most of them study some intuitive control algorithms. This paper proposes a formal analysis of MMC model which leads to the design of a control algorithm thanks to the inversion of the model. The Energetic Macroscopic Representation is used for achieving this goal. All the states variables are controlled to manage the energy of the system, avoid some instable operational points and determine clearly all the dynamics of the different loops of the system.
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/100452014-01-01T00:00:00ZDELARUE, PhilippeGRUSON, FrancoisGUILLAUD, XavierThis papers deals with the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC). This structure is a real breakthrough which allows transmitting huge amount of power in DC link. In the last ten years, lots of papers have been written but most of them study some intuitive control algorithms. This paper proposes a formal analysis of MMC model which leads to the design of a control algorithm thanks to the inversion of the model. The Energetic Macroscopic Representation is used for achieving this goal. All the states variables are controlled to manage the energy of the system, avoid some instable operational points and determine clearly all the dynamics of the different loops of the system.Overvoltage Limitation Method of an Offshore Wind Farm with DC Series Parallel Collection Grid
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/14516
Overvoltage Limitation Method of an Offshore Wind Farm with DC Series Parallel Collection Grid
ZHANG, Haibo; FLOREZ, Diana; SAUDEMONT, Christophe; GRUSON, Francois
This paper describes the characteristics of a series parallel wind farm (SPWF) topology and investigates the control strategy to ensure its safe operation. The SPWF was found to have advantages over other pure dc wind farm architectures in terms of lower construction cost and lower power losses in the collection system. However, unbalance power productions among the wind turbines cause the variations of their output voltages, which may endanger the safe operation of the entire wind farm. This paper proposes a global control strategy that prevents wind turbines from operating above their overvoltage capabilities.With an active participation of the onshore converter, the proposed strategy allows maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of the wind turbines. The practical limitations of this strategy are discussed and improvements are given. The feasibility of the proposed method is validated in a simulation of 300 MW wind farm developed in EMTP-RV.
Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/145162018-01-01T00:00:00ZZHANG, HaiboFLOREZ, DianaSAUDEMONT, ChristopheGRUSON, FrancoisThis paper describes the characteristics of a series parallel wind farm (SPWF) topology and investigates the control strategy to ensure its safe operation. The SPWF was found to have advantages over other pure dc wind farm architectures in terms of lower construction cost and lower power losses in the collection system. However, unbalance power productions among the wind turbines cause the variations of their output voltages, which may endanger the safe operation of the entire wind farm. This paper proposes a global control strategy that prevents wind turbines from operating above their overvoltage capabilities.With an active participation of the onshore converter, the proposed strategy allows maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of the wind turbines. The practical limitations of this strategy are discussed and improvements are given. The feasibility of the proposed method is validated in a simulation of 300 MW wind farm developed in EMTP-RV.Energy and director switches commutation controls for the alternate arm converter
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/14358
Energy and director switches commutation controls for the alternate arm converter
VERMEERSCH, Pierre; GUILLAUD, Xavier; MERLIN, Michael M.C.; EGROT, Philippe; GRUSON, Francois
The Alternate Arm Converter (AAC) is promising multilevel Voltage Source Converter (VSC) suitable for High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems. This converter exhibits interesting features such as a DC Fault Ride Through capability thanks to the use of Full-Bridge Sub-Modules (SM) and a smaller footprint than an equivalent Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC). After an analysis of the converter operating modes called Non-overlap and Overlap mode, a sequential representation of the AAC operation is proposed. The main originality of this paper is the use of the Petri Net to describe all the phases and to highlight their sequencing. According to the phases identified thanks to the sequential approach, models and control structures for the grid currents, the internal energy and the Zero Current Switching (ZCS) are detailed. Furthermore, the step-by-step approach proposed in this paper allows a clear and rigorous modelling of this complex converter.
Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/143582018-01-01T00:00:00ZVERMEERSCH, PierreGUILLAUD, XavierMERLIN, Michael M.C.EGROT, PhilippeGRUSON, FrancoisThe Alternate Arm Converter (AAC) is promising multilevel Voltage Source Converter (VSC) suitable for High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems. This converter exhibits interesting features such as a DC Fault Ride Through capability thanks to the use of Full-Bridge Sub-Modules (SM) and a smaller footprint than an equivalent Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC). After an analysis of the converter operating modes called Non-overlap and Overlap mode, a sequential representation of the AAC operation is proposed. The main originality of this paper is the use of the Petri Net to describe all the phases and to highlight their sequencing. According to the phases identified thanks to the sequential approach, models and control structures for the grid currents, the internal energy and the Zero Current Switching (ZCS) are detailed. Furthermore, the step-by-step approach proposed in this paper allows a clear and rigorous modelling of this complex converter.Tuning of Cascaded Controllers for Robust Grid-Forming Voltage Source Converter
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/14835
Tuning of Cascaded Controllers for Robust Grid-Forming Voltage Source Converter
QORIA, Taoufik; COLAS, Frédéric; GUILLAUD, Xavier; DEBRY, Marie-Sophie; PREVOST, Thierry; GRUSON, Francois
From the origin of the grid, energy has been delivered to electrical loads mainly by synchronous machines. All the main rules to manage the grid have been based on the electromechanical behavior of these machines which have been extensively studied for many years. Due to the increase of HVDC link and renewable energy sources as wind turbine and PV, power converters are massively introduced in the grid with a fundamentally different dynamic behavior. Some years ago, they were connected as simple power injector. Then, they were asked to provide some ancillary services to the grid, in the future, grid forming capability will be required. Even if grid-forming converters had been extensively studied for microgrids and offshore grids, it has to be adapted to transmission grid where the topology may be largely modified. This paper presents an algorithm for calculating the controller parameters of a grid-forming converter which guarantee a stable behavior for many different configurations of the grid.
Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/148352018-01-01T00:00:00ZQORIA, TaoufikCOLAS, FrédéricGUILLAUD, XavierDEBRY, Marie-SophiePREVOST, ThierryGRUSON, FrancoisFrom the origin of the grid, energy has been delivered to electrical loads mainly by synchronous machines. All the main rules to manage the grid have been based on the electromechanical behavior of these machines which have been extensively studied for many years. Due to the increase of HVDC link and renewable energy sources as wind turbine and PV, power converters are massively introduced in the grid with a fundamentally different dynamic behavior. Some years ago, they were connected as simple power injector. Then, they were asked to provide some ancillary services to the grid, in the future, grid forming capability will be required. Even if grid-forming converters had been extensively studied for microgrids and offshore grids, it has to be adapted to transmission grid where the topology may be largely modified. This paper presents an algorithm for calculating the controller parameters of a grid-forming converter which guarantee a stable behavior for many different configurations of the grid.Dynamic Analysis of MMC-Based MTDC Grids : Use of MMC Energy to Improve Voltage Behavior
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/14517
Dynamic Analysis of MMC-Based MTDC Grids : Use of MMC Energy to Improve Voltage Behavior
FREYTES, Julian; AKKARI, Samy; RAULT, Pierre; BELHAOUANE, Mohamed Moez; COLAS, Frédéric; GUILLAUD, Xavier; GRUSON, Francois
This article deals with DC voltage dynamics of Multi-Terminal HVDC grids (MTDC) with energy-based controlled Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC) adopting the commonly used power-voltage droop control technique for power flow dispatch. Special focus is given on the energy management strategies of the MMCs and their ability to influence on the DC voltage dynamics. First, it is shown that decoupling the MMC energy from the DC side, causes large and undesired DC voltage transient after a sudden power flow change. This occurs when this energy is controlled to a fixed value regardless of the DC voltage level. Second, the Virtual Capacitor Control technique is implemented in order to improve the results. However, its limitations on droop-based MTDC grids are highlighted. Finally, a novel energy management approach is proposed to improve the performance of the later method. These studies are performed with detailed MMC models suitable for the use of linear analysis techniques. The derived MTDC models are validated against time-domain simulations using detailed EMT MMC models with 400 sub-modules per arm.
Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/145172019-01-01T00:00:00ZFREYTES, JulianAKKARI, SamyRAULT, PierreBELHAOUANE, Mohamed MoezCOLAS, FrédéricGUILLAUD, XavierGRUSON, FrancoisThis article deals with DC voltage dynamics of Multi-Terminal HVDC grids (MTDC) with energy-based controlled Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC) adopting the commonly used power-voltage droop control technique for power flow dispatch. Special focus is given on the energy management strategies of the MMCs and their ability to influence on the DC voltage dynamics. First, it is shown that decoupling the MMC energy from the DC side, causes large and undesired DC voltage transient after a sudden power flow change. This occurs when this energy is controlled to a fixed value regardless of the DC voltage level. Second, the Virtual Capacitor Control technique is implemented in order to improve the results. However, its limitations on droop-based MTDC grids are highlighted. Finally, a novel energy management approach is proposed to improve the performance of the later method. These studies are performed with detailed MMC models suitable for the use of linear analysis techniques. The derived MTDC models are validated against time-domain simulations using detailed EMT MMC models with 400 sub-modules per arm.