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http://hdl.handle.net/10985/11353
Distributed Economic Dispatch of Embedded Generation in Smart Grids
DIBANGOYE, Jille; GUILLAUD, Xavier; COLAS, Frédéric; FAKHAM, Hicham; DONIEC, Arnaud
In a Smart Grid context, the increasing penetration of embedded generation units leads to a greater complexity in the management of production units. In this arti- cle, we focus on the impact of the introduction of decentralized generation for the unit commitment problem (UC). Unit Commitment Problems consist in finding the optimal schedules and amounts of power to be generated by a set of gen- erating units in response to an electricity demand forecast. While this problem have received a significant amount of attention, classical approaches assume these problems are centralized and deterministic. However, these two assumptions are not realistic in a smart grid context. Indeed, finding the optimal schedules and amounts of power to be generated by multiple distributed generator units is not trivial since it requires to deal with distributed computation, privacy, stochastic planning, ... In this paper, we focus on smart grid scenarios where the main source of complexity comes from the proliferation of distributed generating units. In solving this issue, we consider distributed stochastic unit commitment prob- lems. We introduce a novel distributed gradient descent algorithm which allow us to circumvent classical assumptions. This algorithm is evaluated through a set of experiments on real-time power grid simulator.
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/113532015-01-01T00:00:00ZDIBANGOYE, JilleGUILLAUD, XavierCOLAS, FrédéricFAKHAM, HichamDONIEC, ArnaudIn a Smart Grid context, the increasing penetration of embedded generation units leads to a greater complexity in the management of production units. In this arti- cle, we focus on the impact of the introduction of decentralized generation for the unit commitment problem (UC). Unit Commitment Problems consist in finding the optimal schedules and amounts of power to be generated by a set of gen- erating units in response to an electricity demand forecast. While this problem have received a significant amount of attention, classical approaches assume these problems are centralized and deterministic. However, these two assumptions are not realistic in a smart grid context. Indeed, finding the optimal schedules and amounts of power to be generated by multiple distributed generator units is not trivial since it requires to deal with distributed computation, privacy, stochastic planning, ... In this paper, we focus on smart grid scenarios where the main source of complexity comes from the proliferation of distributed generating units. In solving this issue, we consider distributed stochastic unit commitment prob- lems. We introduce a novel distributed gradient descent algorithm which allow us to circumvent classical assumptions. This algorithm is evaluated through a set of experiments on real-time power grid simulator.Control of DC bus voltage with a Modular Multilevel Converter
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/13254
Control of DC bus voltage with a Modular Multilevel Converter
SAMIMI, Shabab; GRUSON, François; GUILLAUD, Xavier; DELARUE, Philippe
Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC) are becoming increasingly popular with the development of HVDC connection and, in the future, Multi Terminal DC grid. A lot of publications have been published about this topology these last years since it was first proposed. Few of them are addressing explicitly the two different roles that are held by this converter in a HVDC link: controlling the power or controlling the DC voltage level. Most of the time, the DC-bus voltage is supposed to be constant. In an HVDC link, this corresponds to the substation which controls the power. This paper addresses the cases when the voltage is regulated by the converter and presents the different ways of voltage control.
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/132542015-01-01T00:00:00ZSAMIMI, ShababGRUSON, FrançoisGUILLAUD, XavierDELARUE, PhilippeModular Multilevel Converters (MMC) are becoming increasingly popular with the development of HVDC connection and, in the future, Multi Terminal DC grid. A lot of publications have been published about this topology these last years since it was first proposed. Few of them are addressing explicitly the two different roles that are held by this converter in a HVDC link: controlling the power or controlling the DC voltage level. Most of the time, the DC-bus voltage is supposed to be constant. In an HVDC link, this corresponds to the substation which controls the power. This paper addresses the cases when the voltage is regulated by the converter and presents the different ways of voltage control.Grid Connected Inverter Behavior with an Output LC Filter under Voltage Sag Operation
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6314
Grid Connected Inverter Behavior with an Output LC Filter under Voltage Sag Operation
SALHA, Fouad; COLAS, Frédéric; GUILLAUD, Xavier
The aim of this paper is to propose an over current limitation and voltage control strategy for a grid connected inverter with a LC output filter used in distributed generation and in case of voltage sag. This strategy relies on the control of LC output filter voltage with a resonant controller. This controller has to control current and load voltage throughout voltage sag. Generally, resonant controller is made up of a proportional and resonance term, which contains two imaginary poles that aimed to obtain an infinite gain at the resonance frequency. State feedback structure and pole assignment approach are used to tune the proposed control strategy. Comparative results for the application of both resonant and classical PI controller in d-q frame are showed in this paper. The last part deals with the implementation of control strategies on a real time simulation environment. The effectiveness of the proposed controller under a voltage sag operation is shown by experimental results.
Thu, 01 Jan 2009 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/63142009-01-01T00:00:00ZSALHA, FouadCOLAS, FrédéricGUILLAUD, XavierThe aim of this paper is to propose an over current limitation and voltage control strategy for a grid connected inverter with a LC output filter used in distributed generation and in case of voltage sag. This strategy relies on the control of LC output filter voltage with a resonant controller. This controller has to control current and load voltage throughout voltage sag. Generally, resonant controller is made up of a proportional and resonance term, which contains two imaginary poles that aimed to obtain an infinite gain at the resonance frequency. State feedback structure and pole assignment approach are used to tune the proposed control strategy. Comparative results for the application of both resonant and classical PI controller in d-q frame are showed in this paper. The last part deals with the implementation of control strategies on a real time simulation environment. The effectiveness of the proposed controller under a voltage sag operation is shown by experimental results.Energetic Macroscopic Representati on and Inversion Based Control of a Modular Multilevel Converter.
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10045
Energetic Macroscopic Representati on and Inversion Based Control of a Modular Multilevel Converter.
DELARUE, Philippe; GRUSON, François; GUILLAUD, Xavier
This papers deals with the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC). This structure is a real breakthrough which allows transmitting huge amount of power in DC link. In the last ten years, lots of papers have been written but most of them study some intuitive control algorithms. This paper proposes a formal analysis of MMC model which leads to the design of a control algorithm thanks to the inversion of the model. The Energetic Macroscopic Representation is used for achieving this goal. All the states variables are controlled to manage the energy of the system, avoid some instable operational points and determine clearly all the dynamics of the different loops of the system.
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/100452014-01-01T00:00:00ZDELARUE, PhilippeGRUSON, FrançoisGUILLAUD, XavierThis papers deals with the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC). This structure is a real breakthrough which allows transmitting huge amount of power in DC link. In the last ten years, lots of papers have been written but most of them study some intuitive control algorithms. This paper proposes a formal analysis of MMC model which leads to the design of a control algorithm thanks to the inversion of the model. The Energetic Macroscopic Representation is used for achieving this goal. All the states variables are controlled to manage the energy of the system, avoid some instable operational points and determine clearly all the dynamics of the different loops of the system.Impact of control algorithm solutions on Modular Multilevel Converters electrical waveforms and losses
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/13677
Impact of control algorithm solutions on Modular Multilevel Converters electrical waveforms and losses
GRUSON, François; FREYTES, Julian; SAMIMI, Shabab; DELARUE, Philippe; GUILLAUD, Xavier; COLAS, Frédéric; BELHAOUANE, Mohamed Moez
Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC) are becoming increasingly popular with the development of HVDC connection and, in the future, Multi Terminal DC grid. A lot of publications have been published about this topology these last years since it was first proposed. Many of them deal with converter control methods, other address the method of estimating losses. Usually, the proposed losses estimation techniques are associated to simple control methods For VSC (Voltage Sources Converters) topology, the losses minimization is based on the limitation of the RMS currents values. This hypothesis is usually extended to the control of MMC, by limiting the differential currents to their DC component, without really being checked. This paper investigates the impact of two control algorithms variants on electrical quantities (currents, capacitor voltages ripple, losses). From the published results, it is shown that in some cases the usual choice is not the best one.
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/136772015-01-01T00:00:00ZGRUSON, FrançoisFREYTES, JulianSAMIMI, ShababDELARUE, PhilippeGUILLAUD, XavierCOLAS, FrédéricBELHAOUANE, Mohamed MoezModular Multilevel Converters (MMC) are becoming increasingly popular with the development of HVDC connection and, in the future, Multi Terminal DC grid. A lot of publications have been published about this topology these last years since it was first proposed. Many of them deal with converter control methods, other address the method of estimating losses. Usually, the proposed losses estimation techniques are associated to simple control methods For VSC (Voltage Sources Converters) topology, the losses minimization is based on the limitation of the RMS currents values. This hypothesis is usually extended to the control of MMC, by limiting the differential currents to their DC component, without really being checked. This paper investigates the impact of two control algorithms variants on electrical quantities (currents, capacitor voltages ripple, losses). From the published results, it is shown that in some cases the usual choice is not the best one.Losses estimation method by simulation for the Modular Multilevel Converter
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/13255
Losses estimation method by simulation for the Modular Multilevel Converter
FREYTES, Julian; GRUSON, François; DELARUE, Philippe; COLAS, Frédéric; GUILLAUD, Xavier
The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is the most promising solution to connect HVDC grids to a HVAC one. The installation of new equipment in the HVDC transmission systems requires an economic study where the power losses play an important role. Since the MMC it is composed of a high number of semiconductors components, the losses estimation becomes complex. This paper proposes a simulation based method for the losses estimation that combines the MMC averaged and instantaneous model in a modular way. The method brings the possibility to perform comparisons in terms of losses for different modules technologies as well as different high and low level control techniques. Also the losses characteristics within the MMC are also discussed and the passive losses are firstly taken into account
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/132552015-01-01T00:00:00ZFREYTES, JulianGRUSON, FrançoisDELARUE, PhilippeCOLAS, FrédéricGUILLAUD, XavierThe modular multilevel converter (MMC) is the most promising solution to connect HVDC grids to a HVAC one. The installation of new equipment in the HVDC transmission systems requires an economic study where the power losses play an important role. Since the MMC it is composed of a high number of semiconductors components, the losses estimation becomes complex. This paper proposes a simulation based method for the losses estimation that combines the MMC averaged and instantaneous model in a modular way. The method brings the possibility to perform comparisons in terms of losses for different modules technologies as well as different high and low level control techniques. Also the losses characteristics within the MMC are also discussed and the passive losses are firstly taken into accountImproving Small-Signal Stability of an MMC With CCSC by Control of the Internally Stored Energy
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/12894
Improving Small-Signal Stability of an MMC With CCSC by Control of the Internally Stored Energy
FREYTES, Julian; BERGNA, Gilbert; JON ARE, SUUL; D'ARCO, Salvatore; GRUSON, François; COLAS, Frédéric; SAAD, Hani; GUILLAUD, Xavier
The DC-side dynamics of Modular Multilevel Converters (MMCs) can be prone to poorly damped oscillations or stability problems when the second harmonic components of the arm currents are mitigated by a Circulating Current Suppression Controller (CCSC). This paper demonstrates that the source of these oscillations is the uncontrolled interaction of the DC-side current and the internally stored energy of the MMC, as resulting from the CCSC. Stable operation and improved performance of the MMC control system can be ensured by introducing closed loop control of the energy and the DC-side current. The presented analysis relies on a detailed state-space model of the MMC which is formulated to obtain constant variables in steady state. The resulting state-space equations can be linearized to achieve a Linear Time Invariant (LTI) model, allowing for eigenvalue analysis of the small-signal dynamics of the MMC. Participation factor analysis is utilized to identify the source of the poorly damped DC-side oscillations, and indicates the suitability of introducing control of the internal capacitor voltage or the corresponding stored energy. An MMC connected to a DC power source with an equivalent capacitance, and operated with DC voltage droop in the active power flow control, is used as an example for the presented analysis. The developed small-signal models and the improvement in small-signal dynamics achieved by introducing control of the internally stored energy are verified by time-domain simulations in comparison to an EMT simulation model of an MMC with 400 sub-modules per arm.
Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/128942018-01-01T00:00:00ZFREYTES, JulianBERGNA, GilbertJON ARE, SUULD'ARCO, SalvatoreGRUSON, FrançoisCOLAS, FrédéricSAAD, HaniGUILLAUD, XavierThe DC-side dynamics of Modular Multilevel Converters (MMCs) can be prone to poorly damped oscillations or stability problems when the second harmonic components of the arm currents are mitigated by a Circulating Current Suppression Controller (CCSC). This paper demonstrates that the source of these oscillations is the uncontrolled interaction of the DC-side current and the internally stored energy of the MMC, as resulting from the CCSC. Stable operation and improved performance of the MMC control system can be ensured by introducing closed loop control of the energy and the DC-side current. The presented analysis relies on a detailed state-space model of the MMC which is formulated to obtain constant variables in steady state. The resulting state-space equations can be linearized to achieve a Linear Time Invariant (LTI) model, allowing for eigenvalue analysis of the small-signal dynamics of the MMC. Participation factor analysis is utilized to identify the source of the poorly damped DC-side oscillations, and indicates the suitability of introducing control of the internal capacitor voltage or the corresponding stored energy. An MMC connected to a DC power source with an equivalent capacitance, and operated with DC voltage droop in the active power flow control, is used as an example for the presented analysis. The developed small-signal models and the improvement in small-signal dynamics achieved by introducing control of the internally stored energy are verified by time-domain simulations in comparison to an EMT simulation model of an MMC with 400 sub-modules per arm.Laboratory-based test bed of a three terminals DC networks using power hardware in the loop
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10300
Laboratory-based test bed of a three terminals DC networks using power hardware in the loop
AMAMRA, Sid-Ali; COLAS, Frédéric; GUILLAUD, Xavier; NGUEFEU, Samuel
In this paper a three stations MTDC grid is presented, providing a specific application of our work. The experimental platform is intended to combine electrical power components and communication/control equipment with real-time simulation tools. In this way the platform can test grid elements and evaluate different operation scenarios under various conditions.
Tue, 01 Jan 2013 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/103002013-01-01T00:00:00ZAMAMRA, Sid-AliCOLAS, FrédéricGUILLAUD, XavierNGUEFEU, SamuelIn this paper a three stations MTDC grid is presented, providing a specific application of our work. The experimental platform is intended to combine electrical power components and communication/control equipment with real-time simulation tools. In this way the platform can test grid elements and evaluate different operation scenarios under various conditions.Synthesis of different types of energy based controller for a Modular Multilevel Converter integrated in a HVDC link
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10783
Synthesis of different types of energy based controller for a Modular Multilevel Converter integrated in a HVDC link
SAMIMI, Shabab; GRUSON, François; DELARUE, Philippe; GUILLAUD, Xavier
Modular Multilevel Converters are becoming increasingly popular with the development of HVDC connection and, in the future, Multi Terminal DC grid. A lot of publications have been published about this topology these last years since it was first proposed. Few of them are addressing explicitly the 2 different roles that are held by this converter in a HVDC link: controlling the power or controlling the DC voltage level. Moreover, for a given function, different ways of controlling this converter may be considered. This paper proposes an overview of the different solutions for controlling the MMC and proposes a methodology to synthesize the control architecture.
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/107832015-01-01T00:00:00ZSAMIMI, ShababGRUSON, FrançoisDELARUE, PhilippeGUILLAUD, XavierModular Multilevel Converters are becoming increasingly popular with the development of HVDC connection and, in the future, Multi Terminal DC grid. A lot of publications have been published about this topology these last years since it was first proposed. Few of them are addressing explicitly the 2 different roles that are held by this converter in a HVDC link: controlling the power or controlling the DC voltage level. Moreover, for a given function, different ways of controlling this converter may be considered. This paper proposes an overview of the different solutions for controlling the MMC and proposes a methodology to synthesize the control architecture.MMC Stored Energy Participation to the DC Bus Voltage Control in an HVDC Link
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/12895
MMC Stored Energy Participation to the DC Bus Voltage Control in an HVDC Link
SAMIMI, Shabab; GRUSON, François; DELARUE, Philippe; COLAS, Frédéric; BELHAOUANE, Mohamed Moez; GUILLAUD, Xavier
The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is becoming a promising converter technology for HVDC transmission systems. Contrary to the conventional two- or three-level VSC-HVDC links, no capacitors are connected directly on the dc bus in an MMC-HVDC link. Therefore, in such an HVDC link, the dc bus voltage may be much more volatile than in a conventional VSC-HVDC link. In this paper, a connection between the dc bus voltage level and the stored energy inside the MMC is proposed in order to greatly improve the dynamic behavior in case of transients. EMT simulation results illustrate this interesting property on an HVDC link study case.
Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/128952016-01-01T00:00:00ZSAMIMI, ShababGRUSON, FrançoisDELARUE, PhilippeCOLAS, FrédéricBELHAOUANE, Mohamed MoezGUILLAUD, XavierThe modular multilevel converter (MMC) is becoming a promising converter technology for HVDC transmission systems. Contrary to the conventional two- or three-level VSC-HVDC links, no capacitors are connected directly on the dc bus in an MMC-HVDC link. Therefore, in such an HVDC link, the dc bus voltage may be much more volatile than in a conventional VSC-HVDC link. In this paper, a connection between the dc bus voltage level and the stored energy inside the MMC is proposed in order to greatly improve the dynamic behavior in case of transients. EMT simulation results illustrate this interesting property on an HVDC link study case.