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The DSpace digital repository system captures, stores, indexes, preserves, and distributes digital research material.Thu, 15 Apr 2021 17:51:31 GMT2021-04-15T17:51:31ZNumerical Study of Multistage Transcritical Organic Rankine Cycle Axial Turbines
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10145
Numerical Study of Multistage Transcritical Organic Rankine Cycle Axial Turbines
SCIACOVELLI, Luca; CINNELLA, Paola
Transonic flows through axial, multi-stage, transcritical ORC turbines, are investigated by using a numerical solver including advanced multiparameter equations of state and a high-order discretization scheme. The working fluids in use are the refrigerants R134a and R245fa, classified as dense gases due to their complex molecules and relatively high molecular weight. Both inviscid and viscous numerical simulations are carried out to quantify the impact of dense gas effects and viscous effects on turbine performance. Both supercritical and subcritical inlet conditions are studied for the considered working fluids. In the former case, flow across the turbine is transcritical, since turbine output pressure is subcritical. Numerical results show that, due to dense gas effects characterizing the flow at supercritical inlet conditions, supercritical ORC turbines enable, for a given pressure ratio, a higher isentropic efficiency than subcritical turbines using the same working fluid. Moreover, for the selected operating conditions, R134a provides a better performance than R245fa.
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/101452014-01-01T00:00:00ZSCIACOVELLI, LucaCINNELLA, PaolaTransonic flows through axial, multi-stage, transcritical ORC turbines, are investigated by using a numerical solver including advanced multiparameter equations of state and a high-order discretization scheme. The working fluids in use are the refrigerants R134a and R245fa, classified as dense gases due to their complex molecules and relatively high molecular weight. Both inviscid and viscous numerical simulations are carried out to quantify the impact of dense gas effects and viscous effects on turbine performance. Both supercritical and subcritical inlet conditions are studied for the considered working fluids. In the former case, flow across the turbine is transcritical, since turbine output pressure is subcritical. Numerical results show that, due to dense gas effects characterizing the flow at supercritical inlet conditions, supercritical ORC turbines enable, for a given pressure ratio, a higher isentropic efficiency than subcritical turbines using the same working fluid. Moreover, for the selected operating conditions, R134a provides a better performance than R245fa.Numerical investigation of dense gas flows through transcritical multistage axial Organic Rankine Cycle turbines
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/7655
Numerical investigation of dense gas flows through transcritical multistage axial Organic Rankine Cycle turbines
SCIACOVELLI, Luca; CINNELLA, Paola
Many recent studies suggest that supercritical Organic Rankine Cycles have a great potential for lowtemperature heat recovery applications, since they allow better recovery efficiency for a simplified cycle architecture. In this work we investigate flows of dense gases through axial, multi-stage, supercritical ORC turbines, using a numerical code including advanced equations of state and a high-order discretization scheme. Several working fluids are considered, and performances of supercritical turbines are compared to those of subcritical ones using the same fluids.
Tue, 01 Jan 2013 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/76552013-01-01T00:00:00ZSCIACOVELLI, LucaCINNELLA, PaolaMany recent studies suggest that supercritical Organic Rankine Cycles have a great potential for lowtemperature heat recovery applications, since they allow better recovery efficiency for a simplified cycle architecture. In this work we investigate flows of dense gases through axial, multi-stage, supercritical ORC turbines, using a numerical code including advanced equations of state and a high-order discretization scheme. Several working fluids are considered, and performances of supercritical turbines are compared to those of subcritical ones using the same fluids.Direct numerical simulations of supersonic turbulent channel flows of dense gases
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/15599
Direct numerical simulations of supersonic turbulent channel flows of dense gases
SCIACOVELLI, Luca; CINNELLA, Paola; GLOERFELT, Xavier
The influence of dense-gas effects on compressible wall-bounded turbulence is investigated by means of direct numerical simulations of supersonic turbulent channel flows. Results are obtained for PP11, a heavy fluorocarbon representative of dense gases, the thermophysics properties of which are described by using a fifth-order virial equation of state and advanced models for the transport properties. In the dense-gas regime, the speed of sound varies non-monotonically in small perturbations and the dependency of the transport properties on the fluid density (in addition to the temperature) is no longer negligible. A parametric study is carried out by varying the bulk Mach and Reynolds numbers, and results are compared to those obtained for a perfect gas, namely air. Dense-gas flow exhibits almost negligible friction heating effects, since the high specific heat of the fluids leads to a loose coupling between thermal and kinetic fields, even at high Mach numbers. Despite negligible temperature variations across the channel, the mean viscosity tends to decrease from the channel walls to the centreline (liquid-like behaviour), due to its complex dependency on fluid density. On the other hand, strong density fluctuations are present, but due to the non-standard sound speed variation (opposite to the mean density evolution across the channel), the amplitude is maximal close to the channel wall, i.e. in the viscous sublayer instead of the buffer layer like in perfect gases. As a consequence, these fluctuations do not alter the turbulence structure significantly, and Morkovin’s hypothesis is well respected at any Mach number considered in the study. The preceding features make high Mach wall-bounded flows of dense gases similar to incompressible flows with variable properties, despite the significant fluctuations of density and speed of sound. Indeed, the semi-local scaling of Patel et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 27 (9), 2015, 095101) or Trettel & Larsson (Phys. Fluids, vol. 28 (2), 2016, 026102) is shown to be well adapted to compare results from existing surveys and with the well-documented incompressible limit. Additionally, for a dense gas the isothermal channel flow is also almost adiabatic, and the Van Driest transformation also performs reasonably well. The present observations open the way to the development of suitable models for dense-gas turbulent flows.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/155992017-01-01T00:00:00ZSCIACOVELLI, LucaCINNELLA, PaolaGLOERFELT, XavierThe influence of dense-gas effects on compressible wall-bounded turbulence is investigated by means of direct numerical simulations of supersonic turbulent channel flows. Results are obtained for PP11, a heavy fluorocarbon representative of dense gases, the thermophysics properties of which are described by using a fifth-order virial equation of state and advanced models for the transport properties. In the dense-gas regime, the speed of sound varies non-monotonically in small perturbations and the dependency of the transport properties on the fluid density (in addition to the temperature) is no longer negligible. A parametric study is carried out by varying the bulk Mach and Reynolds numbers, and results are compared to those obtained for a perfect gas, namely air. Dense-gas flow exhibits almost negligible friction heating effects, since the high specific heat of the fluids leads to a loose coupling between thermal and kinetic fields, even at high Mach numbers. Despite negligible temperature variations across the channel, the mean viscosity tends to decrease from the channel walls to the centreline (liquid-like behaviour), due to its complex dependency on fluid density. On the other hand, strong density fluctuations are present, but due to the non-standard sound speed variation (opposite to the mean density evolution across the channel), the amplitude is maximal close to the channel wall, i.e. in the viscous sublayer instead of the buffer layer like in perfect gases. As a consequence, these fluctuations do not alter the turbulence structure significantly, and Morkovin’s hypothesis is well respected at any Mach number considered in the study. The preceding features make high Mach wall-bounded flows of dense gases similar to incompressible flows with variable properties, despite the significant fluctuations of density and speed of sound. Indeed, the semi-local scaling of Patel et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 27 (9), 2015, 095101) or Trettel & Larsson (Phys. Fluids, vol. 28 (2), 2016, 026102) is shown to be well adapted to compare results from existing surveys and with the well-documented incompressible limit. Additionally, for a dense gas the isothermal channel flow is also almost adiabatic, and the Van Driest transformation also performs reasonably well. The present observations open the way to the development of suitable models for dense-gas turbulent flows.Dense-gas effects on compressible boundary-layer stability
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/18556
Dense-gas effects on compressible boundary-layer stability
GLOERFELT, Xavier; ROBINET, Jean Christophe; SCIACOVELLI, Luca; CINNELLA, Paola; GRASSO, Francesco
A study of dense-gas effects on the stability of compressible boundary-layer flows is conducted. From the laminar similarity solution, the temperature variations are small due to the high specific heat of dense gases, leading to velocity profiles close to the incompressible ones. Concurrently, the complex thermodynamic properties of dense gases can lead to unconventional compressibility effects. In the subsonic regime, the Tollmien–Schlichting viscous mode is attenuated by compressibility effects and becomes preferentially skewed in line with the results based on the ideal-gas assumption. However, the absence of a generalized inflection point precludes the sustainability of the first mode by inviscid mechanisms. On the contrary, the viscous mode can be completely stable at supersonic speeds. At very high speeds, we have found instances of radiating supersonic instabilities with substantial amplification rates, i.e. waves that travel supersonically relative to the free-stream velocity. This acoustic mode has qualitatively similar features for various thermodynamic conditions and for different working fluids. This shows that the leading parameters governing the boundary-layer behaviour for the dense gas are the constant-pressure specific heat and, to a minor extent, the density-dependent viscosity. A satisfactory scaling of the mode characteristics is found to be proportional to the height of the layer near the wall that acts as a waveguide where acoustic waves may become trapped. This means that the supersonic mode has the same nature as Mack’s modes, even if its frequency for maximal amplification is greater. Direct numerical simulation accurately reproduces the development of the supersonic mode and emphasizes the radiation of the instability waves.
Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/185562020-01-01T00:00:00ZGLOERFELT, XavierROBINET, Jean ChristopheSCIACOVELLI, LucaCINNELLA, PaolaGRASSO, FrancescoA study of dense-gas effects on the stability of compressible boundary-layer flows is conducted. From the laminar similarity solution, the temperature variations are small due to the high specific heat of dense gases, leading to velocity profiles close to the incompressible ones. Concurrently, the complex thermodynamic properties of dense gases can lead to unconventional compressibility effects. In the subsonic regime, the Tollmien–Schlichting viscous mode is attenuated by compressibility effects and becomes preferentially skewed in line with the results based on the ideal-gas assumption. However, the absence of a generalized inflection point precludes the sustainability of the first mode by inviscid mechanisms. On the contrary, the viscous mode can be completely stable at supersonic speeds. At very high speeds, we have found instances of radiating supersonic instabilities with substantial amplification rates, i.e. waves that travel supersonically relative to the free-stream velocity. This acoustic mode has qualitatively similar features for various thermodynamic conditions and for different working fluids. This shows that the leading parameters governing the boundary-layer behaviour for the dense gas are the constant-pressure specific heat and, to a minor extent, the density-dependent viscosity. A satisfactory scaling of the mode characteristics is found to be proportional to the height of the layer near the wall that acts as a waveguide where acoustic waves may become trapped. This means that the supersonic mode has the same nature as Mack’s modes, even if its frequency for maximal amplification is greater. Direct numerical simulation accurately reproduces the development of the supersonic mode and emphasizes the radiation of the instability waves.A Priori Tests of RANS Models for Turbulent Channel Flows of a Dense Gas
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/17800
A Priori Tests of RANS Models for Turbulent Channel Flows of a Dense Gas
SCIACOVELLI, Luca; CINNELLA, Paola; GLOERFELT, Xavier
Dense gas effects, encountered in many engineering applications, lead to unconventional variations of the thermodynamic and transport properties in the supersonic flow regime, which in turn are responsible for considerable modifications of turbulent flow behavior with respect to perfect gases. The most striking differences for wall-bounded turbulence are the decoupling of dynamic and thermal effects for gases with high specific heats, the liquid-like behavior of the viscosity and thermal conductivity, which tend to decrease away from the wall, and the increase of density fluctuations in the near wall region. The present work represents a first attempt of quantifying the influence of such dense gas effects on modeling assumptions employed for the closure of the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, with focus on the eddy viscosity and turbulent Prandtl number models. For that purpose, we use recent direct numerical simulation results for supersonic turbulent channel flows of PP11 (a heavy fluorocarbon representative of dense gases) at various bulk Mach and Reynolds numbers to carry out a priori tests of the validity of some currently-used models for the turbulent stresses and heat flux. More specifically, we examine the behavior of the modeled eddy viscosity for some low-Reynolds variants of the k−ε model and compare the results with those found for a perfect gas at similar conditions. We also investigate the behavior of the turbulent Prandtl number in dense gas flow and compare the results with the predictions of two well-established turbulent Prandtl number models.
Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/178002018-01-01T00:00:00ZSCIACOVELLI, LucaCINNELLA, PaolaGLOERFELT, XavierDense gas effects, encountered in many engineering applications, lead to unconventional variations of the thermodynamic and transport properties in the supersonic flow regime, which in turn are responsible for considerable modifications of turbulent flow behavior with respect to perfect gases. The most striking differences for wall-bounded turbulence are the decoupling of dynamic and thermal effects for gases with high specific heats, the liquid-like behavior of the viscosity and thermal conductivity, which tend to decrease away from the wall, and the increase of density fluctuations in the near wall region. The present work represents a first attempt of quantifying the influence of such dense gas effects on modeling assumptions employed for the closure of the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, with focus on the eddy viscosity and turbulent Prandtl number models. For that purpose, we use recent direct numerical simulation results for supersonic turbulent channel flows of PP11 (a heavy fluorocarbon representative of dense gases) at various bulk Mach and Reynolds numbers to carry out a priori tests of the validity of some currently-used models for the turbulent stresses and heat flux. More specifically, we examine the behavior of the modeled eddy viscosity for some low-Reynolds variants of the k−ε model and compare the results with those found for a perfect gas at similar conditions. We also investigate the behavior of the turbulent Prandtl number in dense gas flow and compare the results with the predictions of two well-established turbulent Prandtl number models.Dense gas effects in inviscid homogeneous isotropic turbulence
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/15675
Dense gas effects in inviscid homogeneous isotropic turbulence
SCIACOVELLI, Luca; CINNELLA, Paola; CONTENT, C.; GRASSO, Francesco
A detailed numerical study of the influence of dense gas effects on the large-scale dynamics of decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence is carried out by using the van der Waals gas model. More specifically, we focus on dense gases of the Bethe–Zel’dovich–Thompson type, which may exhibit non-classical nonlinearities in the transonic and supersonic flow regimes, under suitable thermodynamic conditions. The simulations are based on the inviscid conservation equations, solved by means of a ninth-order numerical scheme. The simulations rely on the numerical viscosity of the scheme to dissipate energy at the finest scales, while leaving the larger scales mostly unaffected. The results are systematically compared with those obtained for a perfect gas. Dense gas effects are found to have a significant influence on the time evolution of the average and root mean square (r.m.s.) of the thermodynamic properties for flows characterized by sufficiently high initial turbulent Mach numbers (above 0.5), whereas the influence on kinematic properties, such as the kinetic energy and the vorticity, are smaller. However, the flow dilatational behaviour is very different, due to the non-classical variation of the speed of sound in flow regions where the dense gas is characterized by a value of the fundamental derivative of the gas dynamics (a measure of the variation of the speed of sound in isentropic compressions) smaller than one or even negative. The most significant differences between the perfect and the dense gas case are found for the repartition of dilatation levels in the flow field. For the perfect gas, strong compressions occupy a much larger volume fraction than expansion regions, leading to probability distributions of the velocity divergence highly skewed toward negative values. For the dense gas, the volume fractions occupied by strong expansion and compression regions are much more balanced; moreover, strong expansion regions are characterized by sheet-like structures, unlike the perfect gas which exhibits tubular structures. In strong compression regions, where compression shocklets may occur, both the dense and the perfect gas exhibit sheet-like structures. This suggests the possibility that expansion eddy shocklets may appear in the dense gas. This hypothesis is also supported by the fact that, in dense gas, vorticity is created with equal probability in strong compression and expansion regions, whereas for a perfect gas, vorticity is more likely to be created in the strong compression ones.
Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/156752016-01-01T00:00:00ZSCIACOVELLI, LucaCINNELLA, PaolaCONTENT, C.GRASSO, FrancescoA detailed numerical study of the influence of dense gas effects on the large-scale dynamics of decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence is carried out by using the van der Waals gas model. More specifically, we focus on dense gases of the Bethe–Zel’dovich–Thompson type, which may exhibit non-classical nonlinearities in the transonic and supersonic flow regimes, under suitable thermodynamic conditions. The simulations are based on the inviscid conservation equations, solved by means of a ninth-order numerical scheme. The simulations rely on the numerical viscosity of the scheme to dissipate energy at the finest scales, while leaving the larger scales mostly unaffected. The results are systematically compared with those obtained for a perfect gas. Dense gas effects are found to have a significant influence on the time evolution of the average and root mean square (r.m.s.) of the thermodynamic properties for flows characterized by sufficiently high initial turbulent Mach numbers (above 0.5), whereas the influence on kinematic properties, such as the kinetic energy and the vorticity, are smaller. However, the flow dilatational behaviour is very different, due to the non-classical variation of the speed of sound in flow regions where the dense gas is characterized by a value of the fundamental derivative of the gas dynamics (a measure of the variation of the speed of sound in isentropic compressions) smaller than one or even negative. The most significant differences between the perfect and the dense gas case are found for the repartition of dilatation levels in the flow field. For the perfect gas, strong compressions occupy a much larger volume fraction than expansion regions, leading to probability distributions of the velocity divergence highly skewed toward negative values. For the dense gas, the volume fractions occupied by strong expansion and compression regions are much more balanced; moreover, strong expansion regions are characterized by sheet-like structures, unlike the perfect gas which exhibits tubular structures. In strong compression regions, where compression shocklets may occur, both the dense and the perfect gas exhibit sheet-like structures. This suggests the possibility that expansion eddy shocklets may appear in the dense gas. This hypothesis is also supported by the fact that, in dense gas, vorticity is created with equal probability in strong compression and expansion regions, whereas for a perfect gas, vorticity is more likely to be created in the strong compression ones.Small-scale dynamics of dense gas compressible homogeneous isotropic turbulence
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/15598
Small-scale dynamics of dense gas compressible homogeneous isotropic turbulence
SCIACOVELLI, Luca; CINNELLA, Paola; GRASSO, Francesco
The present paper investigates the influence of dense gases governed by complex equations of state on the dynamics of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. In particular, we investigate how differences due to the complex thermodynamic behaviour and transport properties affect the small-scale structures, viscous dissipation and enstrophy generation. To this end, we carry out direct numerical simulations of the compressible Navier–Stokes equations supplemented by advanced dense gas constitutive models. The dense gas considered in the study is a heavy fluorocarbon (PP11) that is shown to exhibit an inversion zone (i.e. a region where the fundamental derivative of gas dynamics Γ is negative) in its vapour phase, for pressures and temperatures of the order of magnitude of the critical ones. Simulations are carried out at various initial turbulent Mach numbers and for two different initial thermodynamic states, one immediately outside and the other inside the inversion zone. After investigating the influence of dense gas effects on the time evolution of mean turbulence properties, we focus on the statistical properties of turbulent structures. For that purpose we carry out an analysis in the plane of the second and third invariant of the deviatoric strain-rate tensor. The analysis shows a weakening of compressive structures and an enhancement of expanding ones. Strong expansion regions are found to be mostly populated by non-focal convergence structures typical of strong compression regions, in contrast with the perfect gas that is dominated by eddy-like structures. Additionally, the contribution of non-focal expanding structures to the dilatational dissipation is comparable to that of compressed structures. This is due to the occurrence of steep expansion fronts and possibly of expansion shocklets which contribute to enstrophy generation in strong expansion regions and that counterbalance enstrophy destruction by means of the eddy-like structures.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/155982017-01-01T00:00:00ZSCIACOVELLI, LucaCINNELLA, PaolaGRASSO, FrancescoThe present paper investigates the influence of dense gases governed by complex equations of state on the dynamics of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. In particular, we investigate how differences due to the complex thermodynamic behaviour and transport properties affect the small-scale structures, viscous dissipation and enstrophy generation. To this end, we carry out direct numerical simulations of the compressible Navier–Stokes equations supplemented by advanced dense gas constitutive models. The dense gas considered in the study is a heavy fluorocarbon (PP11) that is shown to exhibit an inversion zone (i.e. a region where the fundamental derivative of gas dynamics Γ is negative) in its vapour phase, for pressures and temperatures of the order of magnitude of the critical ones. Simulations are carried out at various initial turbulent Mach numbers and for two different initial thermodynamic states, one immediately outside and the other inside the inversion zone. After investigating the influence of dense gas effects on the time evolution of mean turbulence properties, we focus on the statistical properties of turbulent structures. For that purpose we carry out an analysis in the plane of the second and third invariant of the deviatoric strain-rate tensor. The analysis shows a weakening of compressive structures and an enhancement of expanding ones. Strong expansion regions are found to be mostly populated by non-focal convergence structures typical of strong compression regions, in contrast with the perfect gas that is dominated by eddy-like structures. Additionally, the contribution of non-focal expanding structures to the dilatational dissipation is comparable to that of compressed structures. This is due to the occurrence of steep expansion fronts and possibly of expansion shocklets which contribute to enstrophy generation in strong expansion regions and that counterbalance enstrophy destruction by means of the eddy-like structures.