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http://hdl.handle.net/10985/8714
Rough Design of a Double-Stator Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generator for a Rim-Driven Marine Current Turbine
DJEBARRI, Sofiane; CHARPENTIER, Jean-Frederic; SCUILLER, Franck; BENBOUZID, Mohamed; GUEMARD, Sylvain
This paper deals with the rough design of a Double-Stator Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Machine (DSAFPM) for a rim-driven Marine Current Turbine (MCT). The DSAFPM machine will be compared to a previously developed and realized Radial Flux Permanent Magnet Machine (RFPM); given the same rim-driven MCT specifications. For that purpose, a first-order electromagnetic design model and a thermal one are developed and used to compare active part mass, cost, and thermal behavior of the two machines. The obtained results show that such a structure of poly-air gap axial flux machine can be more interesting in terms of compactness and thermal behavior for rim-driven marine current turbines.
Sun, 01 Jan 2012 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/87142012-01-01T00:00:00ZDJEBARRI, SofianeCHARPENTIER, Jean-FredericSCUILLER, FranckBENBOUZID, MohamedGUEMARD, SylvainThis paper deals with the rough design of a Double-Stator Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Machine (DSAFPM) for a rim-driven Marine Current Turbine (MCT). The DSAFPM machine will be compared to a previously developed and realized Radial Flux Permanent Magnet Machine (RFPM); given the same rim-driven MCT specifications. For that purpose, a first-order electromagnetic design model and a thermal one are developed and used to compare active part mass, cost, and thermal behavior of the two machines. The obtained results show that such a structure of poly-air gap axial flux machine can be more interesting in terms of compactness and thermal behavior for rim-driven marine current turbines.Comparizon of Conventional and Unconventional 5-phase PM Motor Structures for Naval Applications
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/7378
Comparizon of Conventional and Unconventional 5-phase PM Motor Structures for Naval Applications
SCUILLER, Franck; SEMAIL, Eric; CHARPENTIER, Jean-Frederic; CLENET, Stéphane
Multi-phase motors are widely used in marine propulsion. In this paper, a Multi-machine modeling of Surface Mounted PM motors is presented and applied to a 5-phase one. The latter is proved to be equivalent to a set of two-phase fictitious machines each ones being characterized by a set of specific harmonic rank. A simple control consists in supplying each fictitious machine by a current which contains only one harmonic. A five phase machine is then supplied by currents with only both first and third harmonics. Considering this kind of control, it is proved that for given stator resistance and average torque the Joule losses and the torque ripple are minimized if a simple criterion on the harmonics of electromotive force at constant speed is fullfilled. Different structures of rotor are then compared to examine numerically which improvements can be practically obtained
Thu, 01 Jan 2004 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/73782004-01-01T00:00:00ZSCUILLER, FranckSEMAIL, EricCHARPENTIER, Jean-FredericCLENET, StéphaneMulti-phase motors are widely used in marine propulsion. In this paper, a Multi-machine modeling of Surface Mounted PM motors is presented and applied to a 5-phase one. The latter is proved to be equivalent to a set of two-phase fictitious machines each ones being characterized by a set of specific harmonic rank. A simple control consists in supplying each fictitious machine by a current which contains only one harmonic. A five phase machine is then supplied by currents with only both first and third harmonics. Considering this kind of control, it is proved that for given stator resistance and average torque the Joule losses and the torque ripple are minimized if a simple criterion on the harmonics of electromotive force at constant speed is fullfilled. Different structures of rotor are then compared to examine numerically which improvements can be practically obtainedA bi-harmonic five-phase SPM machine with low ripple torque for marine propulsion
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/13422
A bi-harmonic five-phase SPM machine with low ripple torque for marine propulsion
SCUILLER, Franck; ZAHR, Hussein; SEMAIL, Eric
This paper addresses the design of a bi-harmonic five-phase Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet (SPM) machine for marine propulsion. The bi-harmonic characteristic results from the particular 20 slots-8 poles configuration that makes possible high value of third harmonic current injection. Thus the machine performance can be improved in terms of average torque, speed range, losses control and torque quality, this last feature being the scope of the paper. As low ripple torques are wanted at low speed, the magnet layer is defined to reduce the cogging torque and to make third harmonic current injection increasing average torque and reducing pulsating torque in the same time. According to a selection procedure based on the numerical simulations of a high number of machines, it appears that designing the rotor with two identical radially magnetized magnet that cover two-third the pole arc allows to reach this goal. Referring to an equivalent three-phase machine, the torque ripple level of the bi-harmonic five-phase machine is more than three times lower, thus being obtained with a simple control strategy that aims at achieving constant currents in the rotating frames. The time simulations of the drive confirm the significant reduction of the speed oscillation, especially at low speed.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/134222017-01-01T00:00:00ZSCUILLER, FranckZAHR, HusseinSEMAIL, EricThis paper addresses the design of a bi-harmonic five-phase Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet (SPM) machine for marine propulsion. The bi-harmonic characteristic results from the particular 20 slots-8 poles configuration that makes possible high value of third harmonic current injection. Thus the machine performance can be improved in terms of average torque, speed range, losses control and torque quality, this last feature being the scope of the paper. As low ripple torques are wanted at low speed, the magnet layer is defined to reduce the cogging torque and to make third harmonic current injection increasing average torque and reducing pulsating torque in the same time. According to a selection procedure based on the numerical simulations of a high number of machines, it appears that designing the rotor with two identical radially magnetized magnet that cover two-third the pole arc allows to reach this goal. Referring to an equivalent three-phase machine, the torque ripple level of the bi-harmonic five-phase machine is more than three times lower, thus being obtained with a simple control strategy that aims at achieving constant currents in the rotating frames. The time simulations of the drive confirm the significant reduction of the speed oscillation, especially at low speed.Maximum reachable torque, power and speed for five-phase SPM machine with low armature reaction
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10676
Maximum reachable torque, power and speed for five-phase SPM machine with low armature reaction
SCUILLER, Franck; ZAHR, Hussein; SEMAIL, Eric
Abstract—In this paper, the study of the torque and power versus speed characteristics for a family of five-phase Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet (SPM) machine is carried out. With considering hypotheses (linear magnetic modeling, only first and third harmonic terms in the back-emf and current spectrums), an optimization problem that aims to maximize the torque for given maximum peak voltage and RMS current is formulated: the optimal torque sharing among the two virtual machines (the two dq-axis subspaces) that represent the real five-phase machine is thus calculated for any mechanical speed. For an inverter and a DC voltage sized with only considering the first harmonic of back-emf and current, the problem is solved with changing the virtual machine back-emfs and inductances ratios. With the introduction of the maximum torque/speed point, maximum power/speed point and maximum reachable speed, it can be shown that, if the inductance ratio is large enough, for given Volt-Ampere rating, the machine can produce higher torque without reducing its speed range thus meaning that the capability of the inverter to work is improved with the use of the third harmonic. This property is all the truer as the base armature reaction is large. A particular five-phase machine is sized and numerically analyzed to check this property.
Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/106762016-01-01T00:00:00ZSCUILLER, FranckZAHR, HusseinSEMAIL, EricAbstract—In this paper, the study of the torque and power versus speed characteristics for a family of five-phase Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet (SPM) machine is carried out. With considering hypotheses (linear magnetic modeling, only first and third harmonic terms in the back-emf and current spectrums), an optimization problem that aims to maximize the torque for given maximum peak voltage and RMS current is formulated: the optimal torque sharing among the two virtual machines (the two dq-axis subspaces) that represent the real five-phase machine is thus calculated for any mechanical speed. For an inverter and a DC voltage sized with only considering the first harmonic of back-emf and current, the problem is solved with changing the virtual machine back-emfs and inductances ratios. With the introduction of the maximum torque/speed point, maximum power/speed point and maximum reachable speed, it can be shown that, if the inductance ratio is large enough, for given Volt-Ampere rating, the machine can produce higher torque without reducing its speed range thus meaning that the capability of the inverter to work is improved with the use of the third harmonic. This property is all the truer as the base armature reaction is large. A particular five-phase machine is sized and numerically analyzed to check this property.Power Smoothing Control in a Grid-Connected Marine Current Turbine System for Compensating Swell Effect
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/8675
Power Smoothing Control in a Grid-Connected Marine Current Turbine System for Compensating Swell Effect
ZHOU, Zhibin; SCUILLER, Franck; CHARPENTIER, Jean-Frederic; BENBOUZID, Mohamed; TANG, Tianhao
Variations of marine current speed may lead to strong fluctuations in the power extracted by a marine current turbine (MCT). During short-time period, swell effect is the main cause for the current speed variations. Conventional tip speed ratio Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm will require the MCT to accelerate or to decelerate frequently under swell effect, which can cause severe fluctuations in the generator power. This paper focuses on power smoothing control of grid-connected MCT system. In the first step, a modified MPPT algorithm with filter strategy is proposed in generator-side control to mitigate the fluctuation of generator power. In the second step, Super-capacitor (SC) Energy Storage System (ESS) is added to compensate the residual power fluctuations. Simulations of a 1.5 MW direct-driven grid-connected MCT system are carried out. The swell effect is calculated based on typical system location and sea state. Detailed control strategies and SC sizing are described. The results demonstrate that the association of the generator-side filter strategy with the SC ESS system achieves a smoothed power injected to the grid in case of swell disturbances
Tue, 01 Jan 2013 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/86752013-01-01T00:00:00ZZHOU, ZhibinSCUILLER, FranckCHARPENTIER, Jean-FredericBENBOUZID, MohamedTANG, TianhaoVariations of marine current speed may lead to strong fluctuations in the power extracted by a marine current turbine (MCT). During short-time period, swell effect is the main cause for the current speed variations. Conventional tip speed ratio Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm will require the MCT to accelerate or to decelerate frequently under swell effect, which can cause severe fluctuations in the generator power. This paper focuses on power smoothing control of grid-connected MCT system. In the first step, a modified MPPT algorithm with filter strategy is proposed in generator-side control to mitigate the fluctuation of generator power. In the second step, Super-capacitor (SC) Energy Storage System (ESS) is added to compensate the residual power fluctuations. Simulations of a 1.5 MW direct-driven grid-connected MCT system are carried out. The swell effect is calculated based on typical system location and sea state. Detailed control strategies and SC sizing are described. The results demonstrate that the association of the generator-side filter strategy with the SC ESS system achieves a smoothed power injected to the grid in case of swell disturbancesStudy of a supercapacitor Energy Storage System designed to reduce frequency modulation on shipboard electric power system
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10305
Study of a supercapacitor Energy Storage System designed to reduce frequency modulation on shipboard electric power system
SCUILLER, Franck
On a shipboard electric power system, in steady-state operations, the electric grid disturbances due to powerfull periodic pulsed loads are estimated by the voltage and frequency modulations. Energy Storage System (ESS) with fast discharge ability allows to reduce the stress on the grid components and to meet the design standard requirements. This paper focuses on the sizing and simulation of a supercapacitor ESS (SC ESS). Regarding the chosen topology, the SC bank is directly connected to the grid converter (without DC bus stage) because reliability, efficiency and ability to ensure other functions (as voltage sag mitigations) are expected. Regarding the SC ESS management, the DC voltage is controlled at any time and SC ESS charge and discharge are ordered by stepping the reference DC voltage to minimal value or maximal value. Furthermore SC ESS charge/discharge cycle is synchronized with the pulsed load with a smooth time advance in order to compensate the lower power rise of the ESS in comparison with the one of the pulsed load. The results obtained with the shipgrid simulator are convincing: the frequency modulation is significantly reduced (by more three times) and becomes compliant with the standard requirement. Regarding the generator side, the governor torque variations are strongly mitigated.
Sun, 01 Jan 2012 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/103052012-01-01T00:00:00ZSCUILLER, FranckOn a shipboard electric power system, in steady-state operations, the electric grid disturbances due to powerfull periodic pulsed loads are estimated by the voltage and frequency modulations. Energy Storage System (ESS) with fast discharge ability allows to reduce the stress on the grid components and to meet the design standard requirements. This paper focuses on the sizing and simulation of a supercapacitor ESS (SC ESS). Regarding the chosen topology, the SC bank is directly connected to the grid converter (without DC bus stage) because reliability, efficiency and ability to ensure other functions (as voltage sag mitigations) are expected. Regarding the SC ESS management, the DC voltage is controlled at any time and SC ESS charge and discharge are ordered by stepping the reference DC voltage to minimal value or maximal value. Furthermore SC ESS charge/discharge cycle is synchronized with the pulsed load with a smooth time advance in order to compensate the lower power rise of the ESS in comparison with the one of the pulsed load. The results obtained with the shipgrid simulator are convincing: the frequency modulation is significantly reduced (by more three times) and becomes compliant with the standard requirement. Regarding the generator side, the governor torque variations are strongly mitigated.Power Control of a Nonpitchable PMSG-Based Marine Current Turbine at Overrated Current Speed With Flux-Weakening Strategy
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/8968
Power Control of a Nonpitchable PMSG-Based Marine Current Turbine at Overrated Current Speed With Flux-Weakening Strategy
ZHOU, Zhibin; SCUILLER, Franck; CHARPENTIER, Jean-Frederic; BENBOUZID, Mohamed; TANG, Tianhao
This paper deals with power control strategies for a fixed-pitch direct drive marine current turbine (MCT) when the marine current velocity exceeds the rated value corresponding to the MCT nominal power. At over-rated marine current speed, the MCT control strategy is supposed to be changed from maximum power point tracking (MPPT) stage to constant power stage. In this paper, flux-weakening strategy is investigated to realize appropriate power control strategies at high marine current speeds. During flux-weakening operations, the generator can be controlled to produce nominal or over-nominal power for a specific speed range (constant power range). These two power control modes are compared and the constant power range is calculated in this paper. The relationship between the expected constant power range and generator parameters requirement (stator inductance, permanent magnet flux, nominal power coefficient) is analyzed in this paper. A Torque-based control with a robust feedback flux-weakening strategy is then carried out in the simulation. The proposed control strategies are tested in both high tidal speed and swell wave cases; the results validate the analysis and show the feasibility of the proposed control method.
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/89682014-01-01T00:00:00ZZHOU, ZhibinSCUILLER, FranckCHARPENTIER, Jean-FredericBENBOUZID, MohamedTANG, TianhaoThis paper deals with power control strategies for a fixed-pitch direct drive marine current turbine (MCT) when the marine current velocity exceeds the rated value corresponding to the MCT nominal power. At over-rated marine current speed, the MCT control strategy is supposed to be changed from maximum power point tracking (MPPT) stage to constant power stage. In this paper, flux-weakening strategy is investigated to realize appropriate power control strategies at high marine current speeds. During flux-weakening operations, the generator can be controlled to produce nominal or over-nominal power for a specific speed range (constant power range). These two power control modes are compared and the constant power range is calculated in this paper. The relationship between the expected constant power range and generator parameters requirement (stator inductance, permanent magnet flux, nominal power coefficient) is analyzed in this paper. A Torque-based control with a robust feedback flux-weakening strategy is then carried out in the simulation. The proposed control strategies are tested in both high tidal speed and swell wave cases; the results validate the analysis and show the feasibility of the proposed control method.Application of Flow Battery in Marine Current Turbine System for Daily Power Management
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/8773
Application of Flow Battery in Marine Current Turbine System for Daily Power Management
ZHOU, Zhibin; SCUILLER, Franck; CHARPENTIER, Jean-Frederic; BENBOUZID, Mohamed; TANG, Tianhao
Predictable tidal current resources make marine current turbine (MCT) generation system highly attractive as an electricity supply source for coastal areas and remote islands. However, the tidal speed varies greatly due to the flood and ebb tides during one day period. This results large mismatch between MCT produced power and grid-side (or load-side) demanded power. This paper focuses on a grid-connected MCT system and proposes using vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) energy storage system to manage the combined output power and to follow grid-side demand on a daily basis. The VRB model and parameter calculation process are detailed in this paper. The diesel generator (DG) system is considered as a backup power supply source in case of low battery state of charge (SoC) caused by losses during long-time battery operation. Simulations are carried-out on a grid-connected MCT system with VRB ESS to follow a given power demand profile during one day period. The results valid the proposed VRB sizing and control strategy. The DG system is demonstrated as a feasible solution to avoid VRB reaching its low SoC limitation and to guarantee the expected power injection to the local grid
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/87732014-01-01T00:00:00ZZHOU, ZhibinSCUILLER, FranckCHARPENTIER, Jean-FredericBENBOUZID, MohamedTANG, TianhaoPredictable tidal current resources make marine current turbine (MCT) generation system highly attractive as an electricity supply source for coastal areas and remote islands. However, the tidal speed varies greatly due to the flood and ebb tides during one day period. This results large mismatch between MCT produced power and grid-side (or load-side) demanded power. This paper focuses on a grid-connected MCT system and proposes using vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) energy storage system to manage the combined output power and to follow grid-side demand on a daily basis. The VRB model and parameter calculation process are detailed in this paper. The diesel generator (DG) system is considered as a backup power supply source in case of low battery state of charge (SoC) caused by losses during long-time battery operation. Simulations are carried-out on a grid-connected MCT system with VRB ESS to follow a given power demand profile during one day period. The results valid the proposed VRB sizing and control strategy. The DG system is demonstrated as a feasible solution to avoid VRB reaching its low SoC limitation and to guarantee the expected power injection to the local gridA Comparative Study of Modular Axial Flux Podded Generators for Marine Current Turbines
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/8828
A Comparative Study of Modular Axial Flux Podded Generators for Marine Current Turbines
DJEBARRI, Sofiane; BENBOUZID, Mohamed; CHARPENTIER, Jean-Frederic; SCUILLER, Franck
This research note deals with performance comparison of axial flux modular podded generators for marine current turbines (MCTs). Due to the submarine environment, maintenance operations are very hard, very costly, and strongly depending on sea conditions. In this context, the drive train reliability is a key feature for MCTs. For that purpose, a comparative study is proposed, to assess modular axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM) machines potential for reliability improvement. Thereby, designs of direct-drive modular AFPM generator for a given experimental MCT are performed. The proposed study shows that even number sizing of spatially shifted AFPM machine modules leads to the elimination of the electromagnetic torque ripples transmitted to the MCT shaft. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed module-based generator configuration achieves better thermal behavior. As the actives parts masses and costs are expected to be higher, compromises should be carried-out in terms of reliability and fault-tolerance
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/88282014-01-01T00:00:00ZDJEBARRI, SofianeBENBOUZID, MohamedCHARPENTIER, Jean-FredericSCUILLER, FranckThis research note deals with performance comparison of axial flux modular podded generators for marine current turbines (MCTs). Due to the submarine environment, maintenance operations are very hard, very costly, and strongly depending on sea conditions. In this context, the drive train reliability is a key feature for MCTs. For that purpose, a comparative study is proposed, to assess modular axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM) machines potential for reliability improvement. Thereby, designs of direct-drive modular AFPM generator for a given experimental MCT are performed. The proposed study shows that even number sizing of spatially shifted AFPM machine modules leads to the elimination of the electromagnetic torque ripples transmitted to the MCT shaft. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed module-based generator configuration achieves better thermal behavior. As the actives parts masses and costs are expected to be higher, compromises should be carried-out in terms of reliability and fault-toleranceDesign and Performance Analysis of Double Stator Axial Flux PM Generator for Rim Driven Marine Current Turbines
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/9617
Design and Performance Analysis of Double Stator Axial Flux PM Generator for Rim Driven Marine Current Turbines
DJEBARRI, Sofiane; CHARPENTIER, Jean-Frederic; SCUILLER, Franck; BENBOUZID, Mohamed
This paper deals with the design and performance analysis of double stator axial flux permanent magnet generators for rim-driven marine current turbines (MCT). Indeed for submarine applications, drive train reliability is a key feature to reduce maintenance requirements. Rim-driven direct-drive multi-stator generators can therefore be a very interesting solution to improve this reliability. In this context, the presented work focus on the design of a double-stator axial flux permanent magnets (PM) generator as a rim-driven direct-drive multi-stator generator. The paper details the models, specifications and an optimization procedure that allow to preliminary design these kind of generators for rim-driven marine turbines. Thereafter, validations with finite elements computations and performance analysis considering particular design of rim driven generators are presented. The obtained results highlight some designs issues of PM generators for rim driven marine turbines. In order to assess the effectiveness of the double stator axial flux PM generator, a comparison with a designed surface mounted radial flux PM generator for rim marine turbines is carried out.. The comparison highlights that the double stator axial flux generator presents a better cooling and a reduced active parts cost and mass than the radial flux PM generator.
Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/96172015-01-01T00:00:00ZDJEBARRI, SofianeCHARPENTIER, Jean-FredericSCUILLER, FranckBENBOUZID, MohamedThis paper deals with the design and performance analysis of double stator axial flux permanent magnet generators for rim-driven marine current turbines (MCT). Indeed for submarine applications, drive train reliability is a key feature to reduce maintenance requirements. Rim-driven direct-drive multi-stator generators can therefore be a very interesting solution to improve this reliability. In this context, the presented work focus on the design of a double-stator axial flux permanent magnets (PM) generator as a rim-driven direct-drive multi-stator generator. The paper details the models, specifications and an optimization procedure that allow to preliminary design these kind of generators for rim-driven marine turbines. Thereafter, validations with finite elements computations and performance analysis considering particular design of rim driven generators are presented. The obtained results highlight some designs issues of PM generators for rim driven marine turbines. In order to assess the effectiveness of the double stator axial flux PM generator, a comparison with a designed surface mounted radial flux PM generator for rim marine turbines is carried out.. The comparison highlights that the double stator axial flux generator presents a better cooling and a reduced active parts cost and mass than the radial flux PM generator.