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http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10781
Sensitivity of a 5-phase Brushless DC machine to the 7th harmonic of the back-electromotive force
SEMAIL, Eric; KESTELYN, Xavier; BOUSCAYROL, Alain
This paper presents a vector control of a 5-phase drive composed of a 5-leg Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) supplying a permanent-magnet Brushless DC (BLDC) machine with trapezoidal waveform of the back-electromotive force (EMF). To achieve this control a Multi-machine Multi-converter model is used: the 5-phase machine is transformed into a set of two 2-phase fictitious machines which are each one controlled in a (d,q) frame as 3-phase machines with sine waveform back-EMF. In comparison with the 3-phase BLDC drives, the 5-phase ones present one particularity: a high sensitivity to the 7th harmonic of back-EMF. Experimental results show that the 7th harmonic of back-EMF, which represents only 5% of RMS back-EMF, induces high amplitude parasitic currents (29 % percent of RMS current). The model allows to explain the origin of this sensitivity and how to modify simply the control algorithm. Experimental improvements of the drive are presented.
Thu, 01 Jan 2004 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/107812004-01-01T00:00:00ZSEMAIL, EricKESTELYN, XavierBOUSCAYROL, AlainThis paper presents a vector control of a 5-phase drive composed of a 5-leg Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) supplying a permanent-magnet Brushless DC (BLDC) machine with trapezoidal waveform of the back-electromotive force (EMF). To achieve this control a Multi-machine Multi-converter model is used: the 5-phase machine is transformed into a set of two 2-phase fictitious machines which are each one controlled in a (d,q) frame as 3-phase machines with sine waveform back-EMF. In comparison with the 3-phase BLDC drives, the 5-phase ones present one particularity: a high sensitivity to the 7th harmonic of back-EMF. Experimental results show that the 7th harmonic of back-EMF, which represents only 5% of RMS back-EMF, induces high amplitude parasitic currents (29 % percent of RMS current). The model allows to explain the origin of this sensitivity and how to modify simply the control algorithm. Experimental improvements of the drive are presented.An Efficient Control of a Series Connected Two-Synchronous Motor 5-Phase with Non Sinusoidal EMF Supplied by a Single 5-leg VSI: Experimental and Theoretical Investigations
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6820
An Efficient Control of a Series Connected Two-Synchronous Motor 5-Phase with Non Sinusoidal EMF Supplied by a Single 5-leg VSI: Experimental and Theoretical Investigations
MEKRI, Fatiha; CHARPENTIER, Jean-Frederic; SEMAIL, Eric
This paper proposes the control scheme of an original drive which is made up of two 5-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM) connected in series. Even if the Electro-Motive Forces (EMF) are trapezoidal, it is possible, by using a special series connection between the two machines and by implementing a special vector control, to impose independent torques and speeds with a single fiveleg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). If special series-connection with classical vector control is sufficient to achieve flux/torque decoupling when the EMFs are sinusoidal, it is necessary to modify the control scheme when the EMFs are not sinusoidal. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the independent control of the two 5-phase synchronous machines connected in series, and the efficiency of the proposed improved control for different loads.
Lien vers la version finale éditeur <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378779612001393>
Sun, 01 Jan 2012 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/68202012-01-01T00:00:00ZMEKRI, FatihaCHARPENTIER, Jean-FredericSEMAIL, EricThis paper proposes the control scheme of an original drive which is made up of two 5-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM) connected in series. Even if the Electro-Motive Forces (EMF) are trapezoidal, it is possible, by using a special series connection between the two machines and by implementing a special vector control, to impose independent torques and speeds with a single fiveleg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). If special series-connection with classical vector control is sufficient to achieve flux/torque decoupling when the EMFs are sinusoidal, it is necessary to modify the control scheme when the EMFs are not sinusoidal. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the independent control of the two 5-phase synchronous machines connected in series, and the efficiency of the proposed improved control for different loads.A Vectorial Approach for Generation of Optimal Current References for Multiphase Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines in Real Time
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6738
A Vectorial Approach for Generation of Optimal Current References for Multiphase Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines in Real Time
KESTELYN, Xavier; SEMAIL, Eric
This paper deals with the generation of optimal current references for multiphase permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous machines in normal or fault mode (open-circuited phases). Current references are computed in order to keep a constant torque while minimizing instantaneous joule losses. In comparison with commonly used scalar methods, a vectorial approach makes it possible to reduce the number of computations in order to generate optimal current references in real time. In addition to this, since current references are expressed in terms of physical parameters of the machine, this approach can be used to evaluate the influence of machine parameters over the control performances. Finally, experimental results of a surface-mounted PM five-phase synchronous machine are provided in order to demonstrate the proposed strategy.
Sat, 01 Jan 2011 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/67382011-01-01T00:00:00ZKESTELYN, XavierSEMAIL, EricThis paper deals with the generation of optimal current references for multiphase permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous machines in normal or fault mode (open-circuited phases). Current references are computed in order to keep a constant torque while minimizing instantaneous joule losses. In comparison with commonly used scalar methods, a vectorial approach makes it possible to reduce the number of computations in order to generate optimal current references in real time. In addition to this, since current references are expressed in terms of physical parameters of the machine, this approach can be used to evaluate the influence of machine parameters over the control performances. Finally, experimental results of a surface-mounted PM five-phase synchronous machine are provided in order to demonstrate the proposed strategy.An On-line Method for Stator Fault Detection in Multi-phase PMSM Drives
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6816
An On-line Method for Stator Fault Detection in Multi-phase PMSM Drives
MEINGUET, Fabien; SEMAIL, Eric; GYSELINCK, Johan
This paper deals with an on-line fault detection method for multi-phase PMSM drives. The method is based on the detection of the stator current positive- and negative sequence fundamental components expressed in the stationary αβ reference frame. These components allow calculating a fault index used for the detection of stator faults, such as open-circuit faults. The decision criterion is based on the CUSUM algorithm. A model of a five-phase machine with one single-phase open-circuit is derived and validated with experimental results. Then, it is shown that the proposed method achieves fault detection on a wide speed range and even during speed transient.
Fri, 01 Jan 2010 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/68162010-01-01T00:00:00ZMEINGUET, FabienSEMAIL, EricGYSELINCK, JohanThis paper deals with an on-line fault detection method for multi-phase PMSM drives. The method is based on the detection of the stator current positive- and negative sequence fundamental components expressed in the stationary αβ reference frame. These components allow calculating a fault index used for the detection of stator faults, such as open-circuit faults. The decision criterion is based on the CUSUM algorithm. A model of a five-phase machine with one single-phase open-circuit is derived and validated with experimental results. Then, it is shown that the proposed method achieves fault detection on a wide speed range and even during speed transient.Étude comparative de différents correcteurs pour la commande optimale avec défauts d’une machine pentaphasée
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6881
Étude comparative de différents correcteurs pour la commande optimale avec défauts d’une machine pentaphasée
MEKRI, Fatiha; CHARPENTIER, Jean-Frederic; KESTELYN, Xavier; SEMAIL, Eric
The use of multiphase PM synchronous machines associated with VSI drives appears to be a very efficient solution when a high level of reliability, compactness and acoustic behaviour is required. This kind of solution is for example very useful in naval propulsion systems. The paper deals with the optimal control of a 5-phase PM machine associated with a VSI under fault conditions. This work focus on the use of such a system in normal and fault operations. The studied fault operations are open circuited phase fault conditions. Previous works have shown that, with this kind of 5-phase drive, it is possible to determine optimal currents references which maximize the torque density and reduce the torque pulsations of the machine when one or two phases are open circuited. In this fault case, classical linear controllers (as PID for example) cannot provide a correct tracking of these optimal reference currents because they have a highly dynamical behavior. Using this optimal reference current generation, we propose in this paper to compare classical PID controllers with fixed band and adaptive band hysteresis controllers. This comparison is done using Matlab/Simulink simulation in the case of a 5 phase surface mounted permanent magnet machine in normal and open-circuited fault operations. Study results show that adaptive band hysteresis control allows a good tracking of these unconventional reference currents with a fixed switching frequency for the VSI. In this case of adaptive s band hysteresis control appears to be particularly efficient.
La version éditeur de cet article est accessible à l'adresse suivante : doi:10.3166/ejee.15.377-400
Sun, 01 Jan 2012 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/68812012-01-01T00:00:00ZMEKRI, FatihaCHARPENTIER, Jean-FredericKESTELYN, XavierSEMAIL, EricThe use of multiphase PM synchronous machines associated with VSI drives appears to be a very efficient solution when a high level of reliability, compactness and acoustic behaviour is required. This kind of solution is for example very useful in naval propulsion systems. The paper deals with the optimal control of a 5-phase PM machine associated with a VSI under fault conditions. This work focus on the use of such a system in normal and fault operations. The studied fault operations are open circuited phase fault conditions. Previous works have shown that, with this kind of 5-phase drive, it is possible to determine optimal currents references which maximize the torque density and reduce the torque pulsations of the machine when one or two phases are open circuited. In this fault case, classical linear controllers (as PID for example) cannot provide a correct tracking of these optimal reference currents because they have a highly dynamical behavior. Using this optimal reference current generation, we propose in this paper to compare classical PID controllers with fixed band and adaptive band hysteresis controllers. This comparison is done using Matlab/Simulink simulation in the case of a 5 phase surface mounted permanent magnet machine in normal and open-circuited fault operations. Study results show that adaptive band hysteresis control allows a good tracking of these unconventional reference currents with a fixed switching frequency for the VSI. In this case of adaptive s band hysteresis control appears to be particularly efficient.Fault Tolerant Control of a Seven-phase Drive by Degrees of Freedom Adaptation
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6974
Fault Tolerant Control of a Seven-phase Drive by Degrees of Freedom Adaptation
KESTELYN, Xavier; CREVITS, Yvan; SEMAIL, Eric
This paper proposes a simple way to control multi-phase drives in open-phase conditions. Contrary to existing methods, current references are not recomputed and the control scheme is kept the same to run in open-circuited phase condition. In order to work in fault-conditions, the number of degrees of freedom of the control scheme is adapted to the number of degrees of freedom of the drive. Since a particular attention has to be dedicated to the structure and controller tuning, harmonic content of induced perturbations in fault mode is exhibited. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness and the limitations of the proposed method.
La version éditeur est disponible à l'adresse suivante : http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5472476&isnumber=5472440
Fri, 01 Jan 2010 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/69742010-01-01T00:00:00ZKESTELYN, XavierCREVITS, YvanSEMAIL, EricThis paper proposes a simple way to control multi-phase drives in open-phase conditions. Contrary to existing methods, current references are not recomputed and the control scheme is kept the same to run in open-circuited phase condition. In order to work in fault-conditions, the number of degrees of freedom of the control scheme is adapted to the number of degrees of freedom of the drive. Since a particular attention has to be dedicated to the structure and controller tuning, harmonic content of induced perturbations in fault mode is exhibited. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness and the limitations of the proposed method.Vectorial Approach Based Control of a Seven-Phase Axial Flux Machine Designed for Fault Operation
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6956
Vectorial Approach Based Control of a Seven-Phase Axial Flux Machine Designed for Fault Operation
LOCMENT, Fabrice; SEMAIL, Eric; KESTELYN, Xavier
This paper deals with easy-to-implement control strategies when a seven-phase axial flux permanent magnet machine supplied by a seven-leg voltage source inverter is in fault operation mode. Using a vectorial multimachine description, a seven-phase machine presenting a heightened ability to be controlled with one or two open-circuited phases has been designed. The machine is first presented, and experimental results are provided when one or two phases are open circuited. Based on a vectorial approach, new current references are calculated to avoid high-torque ripples.
Version éditeur disponible à l'adresse suivante : http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4519973&isnumber=4636792
Tue, 01 Jan 2008 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/69562008-01-01T00:00:00ZLOCMENT, FabriceSEMAIL, EricKESTELYN, XavierThis paper deals with easy-to-implement control strategies when a seven-phase axial flux permanent magnet machine supplied by a seven-leg voltage source inverter is in fault operation mode. Using a vectorial multimachine description, a seven-phase machine presenting a heightened ability to be controlled with one or two open-circuited phases has been designed. The machine is first presented, and experimental results are provided when one or two phases are open circuited. Based on a vectorial approach, new current references are calculated to avoid high-torque ripples.Fault Detection, Isolation and Control Reconfiguration of Three-Phase PMSM Drives
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6822
Fault Detection, Isolation and Control Reconfiguration of Three-Phase PMSM Drives
MEINGUET, Fabien; KESTELYN, Xavier; SEMAIL, Eric; GYSELINCK, Johan
This paper deals with on-line software fault detection and isolation method for a drive composed of a fourleg inverter and a three-phase permanent magnet synchronous machine. The considered faults are single-phase open-circuit and current sensor outage. The method is based on the monitoring of the abc currents with phase-locked loops and the ‘CUSUM’ algorithm for the decision system. The impact of the considered faults is examined: first, in case there is no modification of the control and then in case a control reconfiguration is performed taking into account the fault diagnosis. Closed-loop operation is performed before, during and after the fault. Experimental results show that the latter case allows maintaining the drive in safe operation.
Sat, 01 Jan 2011 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/68222011-01-01T00:00:00ZMEINGUET, FabienKESTELYN, XavierSEMAIL, EricGYSELINCK, JohanThis paper deals with on-line software fault detection and isolation method for a drive composed of a fourleg inverter and a three-phase permanent magnet synchronous machine. The considered faults are single-phase open-circuit and current sensor outage. The method is based on the monitoring of the abc currents with phase-locked loops and the ‘CUSUM’ algorithm for the decision system. The impact of the considered faults is examined: first, in case there is no modification of the control and then in case a control reconfiguration is performed taking into account the fault diagnosis. Closed-loop operation is performed before, during and after the fault. Experimental results show that the latter case allows maintaining the drive in safe operation.Flux-Weakening Strategies for a Five-Phase PM Synchronous Machine
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/6742
Flux-Weakening Strategies for a Five-Phase PM Synchronous Machine
LU, Li; SEMAIL, Eric; KOBYLANSKI, Luc; KESTELYN, Xavier
In order to get a low cost mild hybrid system, a global objective is to keep the actual thermal engine architecture. As consequence, the current clawpole synchronous automotive generator must be replaced by a new more powerful electrical machine but with the same large speed range [0 -18000 rpm]. In the project, a power of 15 kW and a DC bus voltage of 60V have been chosen to provide a regenerative breaking at minimum cost. With this payload (250A for the DC bus current), a five-phase machine appears to be interesting because MOSFET transistors of the voltage source inverter (VSI) have not to be used in parallel configuration (only two rated 150A transistors per leg for the VSI). As the speed range is large, a flux weakening must be applied. As the five-phase drives have more degrees of freedom than three-phase ones, different flux weakening strategies can be considered. The aim of this paper is to compare one of them.
Sat, 01 Jan 2011 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/67422011-01-01T00:00:00ZLU, LiSEMAIL, EricKOBYLANSKI, LucKESTELYN, XavierIn order to get a low cost mild hybrid system, a global objective is to keep the actual thermal engine architecture. As consequence, the current clawpole synchronous automotive generator must be replaced by a new more powerful electrical machine but with the same large speed range [0 -18000 rpm]. In the project, a power of 15 kW and a DC bus voltage of 60V have been chosen to provide a regenerative breaking at minimum cost. With this payload (250A for the DC bus current), a five-phase machine appears to be interesting because MOSFET transistors of the voltage source inverter (VSI) have not to be used in parallel configuration (only two rated 150A transistors per leg for the VSI). As the speed range is large, a flux weakening must be applied. As the five-phase drives have more degrees of freedom than three-phase ones, different flux weakening strategies can be considered. The aim of this paper is to compare one of them.Comparizon of Conventional and Unconventional 5-phase PM Motor Structures for Naval Applications
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/7378
Comparizon of Conventional and Unconventional 5-phase PM Motor Structures for Naval Applications
SCUILLER, Franck; SEMAIL, Eric; CHARPENTIER, Jean-Frederic; CLENET, Stéphane
Multi-phase motors are widely used in marine propulsion. In this paper, a Multi-machine modeling of Surface Mounted PM motors is presented and applied to a 5-phase one. The latter is proved to be equivalent to a set of two-phase fictitious machines each ones being characterized by a set of specific harmonic rank. A simple control consists in supplying each fictitious machine by a current which contains only one harmonic. A five phase machine is then supplied by currents with only both first and third harmonics. Considering this kind of control, it is proved that for given stator resistance and average torque the Joule losses and the torque ripple are minimized if a simple criterion on the harmonics of electromotive force at constant speed is fullfilled. Different structures of rotor are then compared to examine numerically which improvements can be practically obtained
Thu, 01 Jan 2004 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/73782004-01-01T00:00:00ZSCUILLER, FranckSEMAIL, EricCHARPENTIER, Jean-FredericCLENET, StéphaneMulti-phase motors are widely used in marine propulsion. In this paper, a Multi-machine modeling of Surface Mounted PM motors is presented and applied to a 5-phase one. The latter is proved to be equivalent to a set of two-phase fictitious machines each ones being characterized by a set of specific harmonic rank. A simple control consists in supplying each fictitious machine by a current which contains only one harmonic. A five phase machine is then supplied by currents with only both first and third harmonics. Considering this kind of control, it is proved that for given stator resistance and average torque the Joule losses and the torque ripple are minimized if a simple criterion on the harmonics of electromotive force at constant speed is fullfilled. Different structures of rotor are then compared to examine numerically which improvements can be practically obtained