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http://hdl.handle.net/10985/11662
Five-phase SPM machine with electronic pole changing effect for marine propulsion
ZAHR, Hussein; SCUILLER, Franck; SEMAIL, Eric
In this paper, the possibility of designing a five-phase Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet (SPM) machine with 20 slots and 8 poles for a low power marine propulsion system is examined. Due to its particular winding and surface magnet design, the machine inherently offers an electronic pole changing effect from 3×4 pole pairs at low speed to 4 pole pairs at high speed. At high speed, in the constant power range, according to Finite Element Analysis, the Maximum Torque Per Ampere strategy appears not to be the right solution to minimize the whole machine losses (copper, iron and magnets). In particular, a strategy that favors the 4-pole rotating field at high speed allows to mitigate the magnet losses, thus limiting the risk of magnet overheating.
Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/116622016-01-01T00:00:00ZZAHR, HusseinSCUILLER, FranckSEMAIL, EricIn this paper, the possibility of designing a five-phase Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet (SPM) machine with 20 slots and 8 poles for a low power marine propulsion system is examined. Due to its particular winding and surface magnet design, the machine inherently offers an electronic pole changing effect from 3×4 pole pairs at low speed to 4 pole pairs at high speed. At high speed, in the constant power range, according to Finite Element Analysis, the Maximum Torque Per Ampere strategy appears not to be the right solution to minimize the whole machine losses (copper, iron and magnets). In particular, a strategy that favors the 4-pole rotating field at high speed allows to mitigate the magnet losses, thus limiting the risk of magnet overheating.Comparison and Analysis of Post-Fault Operation Modes in a Five-Phase PMSM Considering Thermal Behavior
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/13421
Comparison and Analysis of Post-Fault Operation Modes in a Five-Phase PMSM Considering Thermal Behavior
ZAHR, Hussein; TRABELSI, Mohamed; SEMAIL, Eric
This paper presents a comparative evaluation of fault tolerant control strategies for a five-phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) under an opened-phase fault mode. Two main classical Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) methods and the no-reconfiguration strategy are compared with the normal mode operation considering peak current, peak voltage, average torque, torque ripples and measured temperatures of five windings of the five phases. The analysis of the temperature repartition shows that, in fault mode, at least in the particular studied case, the knowledge of the Joule losses is not sufficient for a correct control of the temperature.
Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/134212018-01-01T00:00:00ZZAHR, HusseinTRABELSI, MohamedSEMAIL, EricThis paper presents a comparative evaluation of fault tolerant control strategies for a five-phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) under an opened-phase fault mode. Two main classical Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) methods and the no-reconfiguration strategy are compared with the normal mode operation considering peak current, peak voltage, average torque, torque ripples and measured temperatures of five windings of the five phases. The analysis of the temperature repartition shows that, in fault mode, at least in the particular studied case, the knowledge of the Joule losses is not sufficient for a correct control of the temperature.Five-phase SPM machine with electronic pole changing effect for marine propulsion
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/12999
Five-phase SPM machine with electronic pole changing effect for marine propulsion
ZAHR, Hussein; SCUILLER, Franck; SEMAIL, Eric
In this paper, the possibility of designing a fivephase Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet (SPM) machine with 20 slots and 8 poles for a low power marine propulsion system is examined. Due to its particular winding and surface magnet design, the machine inherently offers an electronic pole changing effect from 3×4 pole pairs at low speed to 4 pole pairs at high speed. At high speed, in the constant power range, according to Finite Element Analysis, the Maximum Torque Per Ampere strategy appears not to be the right solution to minimize the whole machine losses (copper, iron and magnets). In particular, a strategy that favors the 4-pole rotating field at high speed allows to mitigate the magnet losses, thus limiting the risk of magnet overheating.
Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/129992016-01-01T00:00:00ZZAHR, HusseinSCUILLER, FranckSEMAIL, EricIn this paper, the possibility of designing a fivephase Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet (SPM) machine with 20 slots and 8 poles for a low power marine propulsion system is examined. Due to its particular winding and surface magnet design, the machine inherently offers an electronic pole changing effect from 3×4 pole pairs at low speed to 4 pole pairs at high speed. At high speed, in the constant power range, according to Finite Element Analysis, the Maximum Torque Per Ampere strategy appears not to be the right solution to minimize the whole machine losses (copper, iron and magnets). In particular, a strategy that favors the 4-pole rotating field at high speed allows to mitigate the magnet losses, thus limiting the risk of magnet overheating.A bi-harmonic five-phase SPM machine with low ripple torque for marine propulsion
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/13422
A bi-harmonic five-phase SPM machine with low ripple torque for marine propulsion
SCUILLER, Franck; ZAHR, Hussein; SEMAIL, Eric
This paper addresses the design of a bi-harmonic five-phase Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet (SPM) machine for marine propulsion. The bi-harmonic characteristic results from the particular 20 slots-8 poles configuration that makes possible high value of third harmonic current injection. Thus the machine performance can be improved in terms of average torque, speed range, losses control and torque quality, this last feature being the scope of the paper. As low ripple torques are wanted at low speed, the magnet layer is defined to reduce the cogging torque and to make third harmonic current injection increasing average torque and reducing pulsating torque in the same time. According to a selection procedure based on the numerical simulations of a high number of machines, it appears that designing the rotor with two identical radially magnetized magnet that cover two-third the pole arc allows to reach this goal. Referring to an equivalent three-phase machine, the torque ripple level of the bi-harmonic five-phase machine is more than three times lower, thus being obtained with a simple control strategy that aims at achieving constant currents in the rotating frames. The time simulations of the drive confirm the significant reduction of the speed oscillation, especially at low speed.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/134222017-01-01T00:00:00ZSCUILLER, FranckZAHR, HusseinSEMAIL, EricThis paper addresses the design of a bi-harmonic five-phase Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet (SPM) machine for marine propulsion. The bi-harmonic characteristic results from the particular 20 slots-8 poles configuration that makes possible high value of third harmonic current injection. Thus the machine performance can be improved in terms of average torque, speed range, losses control and torque quality, this last feature being the scope of the paper. As low ripple torques are wanted at low speed, the magnet layer is defined to reduce the cogging torque and to make third harmonic current injection increasing average torque and reducing pulsating torque in the same time. According to a selection procedure based on the numerical simulations of a high number of machines, it appears that designing the rotor with two identical radially magnetized magnet that cover two-third the pole arc allows to reach this goal. Referring to an equivalent three-phase machine, the torque ripple level of the bi-harmonic five-phase machine is more than three times lower, thus being obtained with a simple control strategy that aims at achieving constant currents in the rotating frames. The time simulations of the drive confirm the significant reduction of the speed oscillation, especially at low speed.Comparison of Optimized Control Strategies of a High-Speed Traction Machine with Five Phases and Bi-Harmonic Electromotive Force
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/11435
Comparison of Optimized Control Strategies of a High-Speed Traction Machine with Five Phases and Bi-Harmonic Electromotive Force
ZAHR, Hussein; GONG, Jinlin; SEMAIL, Eric; SCUILLER, Franck
The purpose of the paper is to present the potentialities in terms of the control of a new kind of PM synchronous machine. With five phases and electromotive forces whose first (E1) and third (E3) harmonics are of similar amplitude, the studied machine, so-called bi-harmonic, has properties that are interesting for traction machine payload. With three-phase machines, supplied by a mono-harmonic sinusoidal current, the weak number of freedom degrees limits the strategy of control for traction machines especially when voltage saturation occurs at high speeds. As the torque is managed for three-phase machines by a current with only one harmonic, flux weakening is necessary to increase speed when the voltage limitation is reached. The studied five-phase machine, thanks to the increase in the number of freedom degrees for control, aims to alleviate this fact. In his paper, three optimized control strategies are compared in terms of efficiency and associated torque/speed characteristics. These strategies take into account numerous constraints either from the supply (with limited voltage) or from the machine (with limited current densities and maximum acceptable copper, iron and permanent magnet losses). The obtained results prove the wide potentialities of such a kind of five-phase bi-harmonic machine in terms of control under constraints. It is thus shown that the classical Maximum Torque Per Ampere (MTPA) strategy developed for the three-phase machine is clearly not satisfying on the whole range of speed because of the presence of iron losses whose values can no more be neglected at high speeds. Two other strategies have been then proposed to be able to manage the compromises, at high speeds, between the high values of torque and efficiency under the constraints of admissible total losses either in the rotor or in the stator.
Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/114352016-01-01T00:00:00ZZAHR, HusseinGONG, JinlinSEMAIL, EricSCUILLER, FranckThe purpose of the paper is to present the potentialities in terms of the control of a new kind of PM synchronous machine. With five phases and electromotive forces whose first (E1) and third (E3) harmonics are of similar amplitude, the studied machine, so-called bi-harmonic, has properties that are interesting for traction machine payload. With three-phase machines, supplied by a mono-harmonic sinusoidal current, the weak number of freedom degrees limits the strategy of control for traction machines especially when voltage saturation occurs at high speeds. As the torque is managed for three-phase machines by a current with only one harmonic, flux weakening is necessary to increase speed when the voltage limitation is reached. The studied five-phase machine, thanks to the increase in the number of freedom degrees for control, aims to alleviate this fact. In his paper, three optimized control strategies are compared in terms of efficiency and associated torque/speed characteristics. These strategies take into account numerous constraints either from the supply (with limited voltage) or from the machine (with limited current densities and maximum acceptable copper, iron and permanent magnet losses). The obtained results prove the wide potentialities of such a kind of five-phase bi-harmonic machine in terms of control under constraints. It is thus shown that the classical Maximum Torque Per Ampere (MTPA) strategy developed for the three-phase machine is clearly not satisfying on the whole range of speed because of the presence of iron losses whose values can no more be neglected at high speeds. Two other strategies have been then proposed to be able to manage the compromises, at high speeds, between the high values of torque and efficiency under the constraints of admissible total losses either in the rotor or in the stator.Five-Phase Bi-Harmonic PMSM Control under Voltage and Currents Limits
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/12994
Five-Phase Bi-Harmonic PMSM Control under Voltage and Currents Limits
ZAHR, Hussein; TRABELSI, Mohamed; SEMAIL, Eric; NGUYEN, Ngac Ky
For a particular five-phase synchronous machine, this paper investigates the sensitivity of a vectorial control strategy on the required peak phase voltage whose value is fundamental for the choice of the DC bus voltage. The specificity of the machine is that the first and third harmonic components of the back electromotive force (back-emf) have the same amplitude. As a consequence, the torque can be produced by one of them or both with suitable currents. This degree of freedom is interesting for optimizing the efficiency and generating high transient torque. However, using two harmonics having the same amplitude leads to a necessity to analyze the constraints on the required phase machine voltage. Considering a Maximum Torque Per Ampere (MTPA) strategy, the paper examines the impact of some parameters such as the phase shift between currents and back-emfs or the ratio between the third and the first harmonic of current on the torque and maximum voltage value. Experimental tests with a limited DC bus voltage have been carried out and compared to the results obtained by a Finite Element Analysis.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/129942017-01-01T00:00:00ZZAHR, HusseinTRABELSI, MohamedSEMAIL, EricNGUYEN, Ngac KyFor a particular five-phase synchronous machine, this paper investigates the sensitivity of a vectorial control strategy on the required peak phase voltage whose value is fundamental for the choice of the DC bus voltage. The specificity of the machine is that the first and third harmonic components of the back electromotive force (back-emf) have the same amplitude. As a consequence, the torque can be produced by one of them or both with suitable currents. This degree of freedom is interesting for optimizing the efficiency and generating high transient torque. However, using two harmonics having the same amplitude leads to a necessity to analyze the constraints on the required phase machine voltage. Considering a Maximum Torque Per Ampere (MTPA) strategy, the paper examines the impact of some parameters such as the phase shift between currents and back-emfs or the ratio between the third and the first harmonic of current on the torque and maximum voltage value. Experimental tests with a limited DC bus voltage have been carried out and compared to the results obtained by a Finite Element Analysis.Five-phase version of 12slots/8poles three-phase Synchronous Machine for Marine-propulsion
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/8654
Five-phase version of 12slots/8poles three-phase Synchronous Machine for Marine-propulsion
ZAHR, Hussein; SCUILLER, Franck; SEMAIL, Eric
Multiphase machines are widely used in electric marine propulsion especially because of their fault-tolerance which allows to guarantee the propulsion even if a fault occurs in the electrical system. Besides, the 12 slots/8 poles three-phase machine (12/8/3 machine) with fractional slot concentrated windings is known for its low level of permanent Magnet eddy currents losses, making it adequate for compact high speeds applications. Since this interesting property is due to a 0.5 value for the number of slots per pole and per phase (spp=0.5), then the paper examines a five-phase 20 slots/8poles (20/8/5 machine) fault tolerant machine whose spp=0.5. Using an analytical model, the copper losses and an estimation of the magnet losses for the two machines are presented and a comparison is done between the two machines. The results show that the 20/8/5 has more Joules losses than 12/8/3 but lower magnet eddy current losses. Since the Joules losses can be easily evacuated more than the magnet losses, the 20/8/5 machine can be considered as the fault tolerant version of the 12/8/3 machine. Finally, the overall losses for the two machines are computed, the losses in 20/8/5 machine are less than in 12/8/3 machine. A finite element calculation is carried out in order to validate the analytical predictions.
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/86542014-01-01T00:00:00ZZAHR, HusseinSCUILLER, FranckSEMAIL, EricMultiphase machines are widely used in electric marine propulsion especially because of their fault-tolerance which allows to guarantee the propulsion even if a fault occurs in the electrical system. Besides, the 12 slots/8 poles three-phase machine (12/8/3 machine) with fractional slot concentrated windings is known for its low level of permanent Magnet eddy currents losses, making it adequate for compact high speeds applications. Since this interesting property is due to a 0.5 value for the number of slots per pole and per phase (spp=0.5), then the paper examines a five-phase 20 slots/8poles (20/8/5 machine) fault tolerant machine whose spp=0.5. Using an analytical model, the copper losses and an estimation of the magnet losses for the two machines are presented and a comparison is done between the two machines. The results show that the 20/8/5 has more Joules losses than 12/8/3 but lower magnet eddy current losses. Since the Joules losses can be easily evacuated more than the magnet losses, the 20/8/5 machine can be considered as the fault tolerant version of the 12/8/3 machine. Finally, the overall losses for the two machines are computed, the losses in 20/8/5 machine are less than in 12/8/3 machine. A finite element calculation is carried out in order to validate the analytical predictions.Maximum reachable torque, power and speed for five-phase SPM machine with low armature reaction
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10676
Maximum reachable torque, power and speed for five-phase SPM machine with low armature reaction
SCUILLER, Franck; ZAHR, Hussein; SEMAIL, Eric
Abstract—In this paper, the study of the torque and power versus speed characteristics for a family of five-phase Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet (SPM) machine is carried out. With considering hypotheses (linear magnetic modeling, only first and third harmonic terms in the back-emf and current spectrums), an optimization problem that aims to maximize the torque for given maximum peak voltage and RMS current is formulated: the optimal torque sharing among the two virtual machines (the two dq-axis subspaces) that represent the real five-phase machine is thus calculated for any mechanical speed. For an inverter and a DC voltage sized with only considering the first harmonic of back-emf and current, the problem is solved with changing the virtual machine back-emfs and inductances ratios. With the introduction of the maximum torque/speed point, maximum power/speed point and maximum reachable speed, it can be shown that, if the inductance ratio is large enough, for given Volt-Ampere rating, the machine can produce higher torque without reducing its speed range thus meaning that the capability of the inverter to work is improved with the use of the third harmonic. This property is all the truer as the base armature reaction is large. A particular five-phase machine is sized and numerically analyzed to check this property.
Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/106762016-01-01T00:00:00ZSCUILLER, FranckZAHR, HusseinSEMAIL, EricAbstract—In this paper, the study of the torque and power versus speed characteristics for a family of five-phase Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet (SPM) machine is carried out. With considering hypotheses (linear magnetic modeling, only first and third harmonic terms in the back-emf and current spectrums), an optimization problem that aims to maximize the torque for given maximum peak voltage and RMS current is formulated: the optimal torque sharing among the two virtual machines (the two dq-axis subspaces) that represent the real five-phase machine is thus calculated for any mechanical speed. For an inverter and a DC voltage sized with only considering the first harmonic of back-emf and current, the problem is solved with changing the virtual machine back-emfs and inductances ratios. With the introduction of the maximum torque/speed point, maximum power/speed point and maximum reachable speed, it can be shown that, if the inductance ratio is large enough, for given Volt-Ampere rating, the machine can produce higher torque without reducing its speed range thus meaning that the capability of the inverter to work is improved with the use of the third harmonic. This property is all the truer as the base armature reaction is large. A particular five-phase machine is sized and numerically analyzed to check this property.Paramètres clés pour la conception d’une machine pentaphasée à aimants à double polarité
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/8537
Paramètres clés pour la conception d’une machine pentaphasée à aimants à double polarité
ZAHR, Hussein; SEMAIL, Eric; SCUILLER, Franck
Les systèmes de propulsion automobile ou navale nécessitent des entraînements électromécaniques compacts. Lorsque le diamètre alloué à la machine est faible, la mise en oeuvre d’une solution à grand nombre de pôles est difficile, ce qui interdit l’entraînement direct. Concevoir une machine intrinsèquement apte à fonctionner tant en basse vitesse qu’à haute vitesse permettrait de supprimer le réducteur mécanique généralement mis en oeuvre. Dans le cadre de cette problématique, cet article analyse les propriétés d’une machine synchrone pentaphasée à aimants déposées équipée d’un bobinage concentré générant à la fois p paires et 3p paires de pôles. Conçue pour être pilotée en commutation électronique de pôles, cette machine à cinq phases, équivalente à un ensemble de deux machines diphasées équivalentes (de type machine dq), présente la particularité suivante : les deux machines diphasées décrivant son comportement électromagnétique ont la même constante de temps et tout particulièrement des amplitudes comparables de la force électromotrice.
Wed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/85372014-01-01T00:00:00ZZAHR, HusseinSEMAIL, EricSCUILLER, FranckLes systèmes de propulsion automobile ou navale nécessitent des entraînements électromécaniques compacts. Lorsque le diamètre alloué à la machine est faible, la mise en oeuvre d’une solution à grand nombre de pôles est difficile, ce qui interdit l’entraînement direct. Concevoir une machine intrinsèquement apte à fonctionner tant en basse vitesse qu’à haute vitesse permettrait de supprimer le réducteur mécanique généralement mis en oeuvre. Dans le cadre de cette problématique, cet article analyse les propriétés d’une machine synchrone pentaphasée à aimants déposées équipée d’un bobinage concentré générant à la fois p paires et 3p paires de pôles. Conçue pour être pilotée en commutation électronique de pôles, cette machine à cinq phases, équivalente à un ensemble de deux machines diphasées équivalentes (de type machine dq), présente la particularité suivante : les deux machines diphasées décrivant son comportement électromagnétique ont la même constante de temps et tout particulièrement des amplitudes comparables de la force électromotrice.Design Considerations of Five-Phase Machine with Double p/3p Polarity
http://hdl.handle.net/10985/13423
Design Considerations of Five-Phase Machine with Double p/3p Polarity
GONG, Jinlin; ZAHR, Hussein; SEMAIL, Eric; TRABELSI, Mohamed; ASLAN, Bassel; SCUILLER, Franck
In the context of traction drives with required torque transient capabilities and a classically wide flux weakening speed range, this paper gives design considerations of a particular Double-Polarity (DP) five-phase machine. Beyond its intrinsic fault tolerance due its five phases, its specificity is the ability to develop torques of comparable values under three kinds of supply: with only first, third or both first and third sinusoidal currents. This property, due to first (E1) and third (E3) harmonic electromotive forces (emf) of comparable values, gives more degrees of freedom for the control of the machine. Unlike three-phase sinusoidal machine, flux weakening is no more the unique solution when maximum voltage is reached. Thanks to the extra degrees of freedom in this kind of machines, more possibilities for the control of the torque and current supply can be applied. At first, elements for the choice of slots/poles combination of such DP machines are given. Then, in case of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (IPMSM), possible adaptations of the rotor are proposed in order to bring the double p/3p polarity property. The last design criterion considered is the level of eddy-current losses, important at high frequencies. For proof of the concept effectiveness, a prototype with a five-phase fractional-slot concentrated winding of 40 slots and 16/48 poles is presented with results from experimental set-up and Finite Element modeling. A comparison with equivalent no-fault-tolerant three-phase 24 slots /16 poles machines is also carried out.
Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10985/134232018-01-01T00:00:00ZGONG, JinlinZAHR, HusseinSEMAIL, EricTRABELSI, MohamedASLAN, BasselSCUILLER, FranckIn the context of traction drives with required torque transient capabilities and a classically wide flux weakening speed range, this paper gives design considerations of a particular Double-Polarity (DP) five-phase machine. Beyond its intrinsic fault tolerance due its five phases, its specificity is the ability to develop torques of comparable values under three kinds of supply: with only first, third or both first and third sinusoidal currents. This property, due to first (E1) and third (E3) harmonic electromotive forces (emf) of comparable values, gives more degrees of freedom for the control of the machine. Unlike three-phase sinusoidal machine, flux weakening is no more the unique solution when maximum voltage is reached. Thanks to the extra degrees of freedom in this kind of machines, more possibilities for the control of the torque and current supply can be applied. At first, elements for the choice of slots/poles combination of such DP machines are given. Then, in case of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (IPMSM), possible adaptations of the rotor are proposed in order to bring the double p/3p polarity property. The last design criterion considered is the level of eddy-current losses, important at high frequencies. For proof of the concept effectiveness, a prototype with a five-phase fractional-slot concentrated winding of 40 slots and 16/48 poles is presented with results from experimental set-up and Finite Element modeling. A comparison with equivalent no-fault-tolerant three-phase 24 slots /16 poles machines is also carried out.