Evolution of the fresh water distribution in Nouakchott after the commissioning of the Aftout Es Saheli project
Article dans une revue avec comité de lecture
Mauritania is characterized by an arid climate with limited water resources. Nouakchott has experienced tremendous growth, from a population of several hundred people in 1960 to over 700,000 in 2005 according to the National Statistics Office, this growth has generated abnormal pressure on core infrastructure, particularly for drinking water and wastewater management. The water needs of the population of Nouakchott were exclusively met by the excessive exploitation of Idini aquifer’s well field. In late 2010, Mauritania began operating the Aftout Es Saheli project supplying the city with water pumped from the Senegal River. The aim of this paper is to present the evolution of the water situation in the city before and after the Aftout Es Saheli project, and to recommend ways to improve the management of this situation, especially in the peripheral neighborhoods. Our study focused on the water’s availability and physico-chemical and bacteriological qualities in both poor neighborhoods supplied by a high-risk informal distribution system and affluent neighborhoods supplied by the network. In this context, we note that, despite the dilapidated distribution system, the start-up of Aftout Es Saheli and the progressive eradication of the informal system have significantly improved the covering of the population’s water needs with an improving water quality.
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