Analysis of laser–melt pool–powder bed interaction during the selective laser melting of a stainless steel
TypeArticles dans des revues avec comité de lecture
The laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) or powder-bed additive layer manufacturing process is now recognized as a high-potential manufacturing process for complex metallic parts. However, many technical issues are still to overcome for making LPBF a fully viable manufacturing process. This is the case of surface finish and the systematic occurrence of porosities, which require postmachining steps. Up till now, the porosity origin remains unclear but is expected to be related to the stability of the process. As a LPBF part is made by the accumulation of hundreds of meters of small weld beads, it also appears to be important to understand all the phenomena that occur during the laser-powder-melt pool (MP) interaction for each single track. For this reason, in the first part of our study, using an instrumented LPBF setup and a fast camera analysis (>10 000 image/s), single tracks were fabricated and analyzed in real time and postmortem. Spatters ejections and powder denudation phenomena were observed together with variations of melt pool dimensions and melt-pool instabilities. In turn, the physical origin of this powder denudation and the dynamics of the MP were investigated and discussed.
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