Relationship between damage and permeability in liner-less composite tanks : experimental study at the lamina level
TypeCommunications avec actes
The aim of this study is to provide a relevant description of damage growth and the resultant crack network to predict leaks in liner-less composite vessels. Tensile tests were carried out on three different laminates: [02/90n/02], [+45/-45]2s and [0/+67.5/-67.5]s. Number n varies from 1 to 3 in order to study the effect of ply thickness. Transverse crack and delamination at crack tips were identified with an optical microscope during tensile loading. A length of 100 mm was observed for several loading levels to evaluate statistical effects. Results highlight a preliminary step in the damage scenario with small crack densities before a second step where the crack growth speeds up. In bulk, cross-section examinations showed that no delamination occurred at crack tip in the material of the study (M21 T700). Cross-section examinations were also performed on [+45/-45]2s and [0/+67.5/-67.5]s layups in order to bypass the issue of free edge effects. Damage state in those layups was shown to be significantly different in the bulk than at the surface. Observations of the damage state in bulk for those layups demonstrated that there is no transverse crack in [+45/-45]2s specimens subjected to shear strains up to 4%, and that interactions between damage of consecutive plies strongly impact both the damage kinetics and the arrangement of cracks. These elements are fundamental for the assessment of permeability performance, and will be introduced in the predictive model.
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