Lower-limb lengths and angles in children older than six years: Reliability and reference values by EOS® stereoradiography
TypeArticles dans des revues avec comité de lecture
Lower-limb alignment in children is classically assessed clinically or based on conventional radiography, which is associated with projection bias. Low-dose biplanar radiography was described recently as an alternative to conventional imaging. The primary objective of this study was to assess the reliability of length and angle values inferred from 3D reconstructions in children seen in everyday practice. The secondary objective was to obtain reference values for goniometry parameters in children. The paediatric reliability study was done in 18 volunteers who were divided into three groups based on whether they were typically developing (TD) children, had skeletal development abnormalities, or had cerebral palsy. The reference data were obtained in 129 TD children. Each study participant underwent biplanar radiography with 3D reconstruction performed by experts and radiology technicians. Goniometry parameters were computed automatically. Reproducibility was assessed based on the intra-class coefficient (ICC) and the ISO 5725 standard (standard deviation of reproducibility, SDR). For length parameters, the ICCs ranged from 0.94 to 1.00 and the SDR from 2.1 to 3.5 mm. For angle parameters, the ICC and SDR ranges were 0.60–0.95 and 0.9°–4.6°, respectively. No significant differences were found across experts or radiology technicians. Age-specific reference data are reported. These findings confirm the reliability of low-dose biplanar radiography for assessing lower-limb parameters in children seen in clinical practice. In addition, the study provides reference data for commonly measured parameters.
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