Subject specific numerical simulation and its application to traumatology
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Human body cimputer models are now frequently used for virtual crash tests in the early phase of vehicle prototype designs. However existing models only partially consider the extreme variability of the human body. Such variability raises the issue of subject specific modelling, both for geometry and for tissues mechanical properties. Progress in medical imaging and particularly biplanar X-Rays and associated 3D reconstruction, used in clinical routine, yielded drastic advances in geometric modelling. Progressive constitution of large databases allow interindividual variation analysis and modelling. Progress also concerns bone mechanical properties quantification. Recent ultrasound elastography techniques provide novel tools for in vivo characterization of soft tissues. Beyond the field of road safety, research in subject specific modeling is also active in orthopedy and traumatology, for identification of subjects at risk and for orthopedic or surgical treatment based on subject specific simulation. Computer based tools should emerge in a near future for a decision aid in diagnosis and treatment strategy planning, taking into account patient specificities and moving towards individualized medicine.
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