Melt Pool and Keyhole Behavior Analysis for Deep Penetration Laser Welding
Article dans une revue avec comité de lecture
One usually defines the main characteristic of the welding performances of a given laser system by its “penetration curve” that corresponds to the welding depth as a function of the welding speed Vw for a given set of operating parameters. Analysis of a penetration curve is interesting and gives very fruitful results. Coupled with high speed video imaging of melt pool surface and ejected plume behaviors, the analysis of this penetration curve on a very large range of welding speeds, typically from 0 to 50 m/min, has allowed us to observe very different and characteristic regimes. These regimes are mainly characterized by the physical processes by which they impede the laser beam penetration inside the material. We show that it is only at rather high welding speeds that these limiting processes are reduced. Consequently the scaling law of welding depth with welding speed is in agreement with adapted modeling of this process. On the other hand, as the welding speed is reduced, different effects depending of the weld pool dynamics and plume interaction, strongly disturb the keyhole stability and are responsible of the deviation of the penetration curve from the previous modeling that agrees with a 1/Vw scaling law. A corresponding criterion for the occurrence of this effect is defined.
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