les énergies marines renouvelables: Les défis d’une filière industrielle émergente
Article dans une revue avec comité de lecture
The Renewable Marine Energy (RME) is a challenge and an opportunity for the very next decades. For many years France has been delaying its involvement in this industrial area but is now aiming to install 6 GW of electrical power produced at sea by 2020. To keep in line with these international and European commitments, France encourages many stakeholders to join their efforts towards a fast and efficient development of these technologies within the French waters. This paper introduces the industrial background and the outstanding actions – from government and regional authorities. The Pôle Mer Bretagne (Brittany Maritime Competitiveness Cluster) is dealing with to help developing the RME industry in France. It is foreseen that this industry will represent by 2020 an overall market of 30 billion euros and 10 000 jobs. To achieve such a goal, several actions have been launched these last years. Among those, the best financial tool is the "Investment for the Future" ("Investissements d'avenir") initiative which offers a proper framework to develop ambitious projects such as: • The five R&D projects dedicated to the design of innovative offshore energy harnessing devices: - Two floating wind turbines (WINFLO & VERTIWIND) - Two tidal turbines (ORCA & SABELLA) - And one wave converter (S3) • The Institute of Excellence in Carbon-free Energy "France Energie Marine" aiming at aggregating all the French research efforts dedicated to RME and to manage the test sites that already exist or that will be installed soon. • The selection of the contractors for the four first French wind farms to be installed in the Channel and the Atlantic Ocean for a total power of 1 728 MW. The paper introduces the various devices to be designed in the next future, highlighting the critical aspects where R&D is still needed, and the specificities of such systems from an electrical engineering point of view. Finally it concludes with an overview of the supporting initiatives, such as education and infrastructures, and of the perspectives.
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