Influence of thermal diffusion and shear-thinning during the leveling of nanoimprinted patterns in a polystyrene thin film
TypeArticles dans des revues avec comité de lecture
When capillary forces prevail, the leveling of the free surface of a fluid film is a natural phenomenon that has already found applicative interest either with brushmarks for paint coatings or for rheology on polymeric thin films. Among many parameters, the material behavior influences notably this phenomenon and its characterization still arouses curiosity at the nanoscale. In this article the nanoscale properties of a polystyrene film are derived from the leveling rate of nanoimprinted patterns and are compared to bulk values obtained with a parallel plate rheometer. In particular the focus is made on the isothermal assumption during the process and the consequences of an anisothermal state on the material behavior. Both points are investigated by using numerical simulations based on the natural element method. First we demonstrate experimentally that the leveling rate is influenced by the heat exchange at the air-polymer interface and that thermal diffusion should be taken into account within the film and its underlying substrate. Then we numerically investigate the influence of thermal diffusion and shear-thinning on the leveling rate. Finally we show that the bulk properties can represent particularly closely the behavior of the polymer at the nanoscale if adequate thermal boundary conditions are used and if shear-thinning is taken into account. This agreement postulates a decrease by 7◦C of the mean temperature of the polystyrene film coated on silicon when experiments are carried out on a hotplate at 100◦C in a cleanroom environment.
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