Novel indicators to better monitor the collection and recovery of (critical) raw materials in WEEE: Focus on screens
TypeArticles dans des revues avec comité de lecture
Currently, in the European Union (EU), e-waste chain performance is assessed by technical indicators that aim to ensure system compliance with collection and recovery targets set by the WEEE Directive. This study proposes indicators to improve WEEE flow monitoring beyond the current overall weight-based approach, including complementary flows and treatment performance. A case study focused on the screen category in France is presented. In 2017, the collection rate of cathode-ray tube screens (CRT) was 68%, while for flat panel display (FPD) generated only 14% was collected. CRT screens have less precious and critical materials than FDP. Thus, elements like cobalt and gold highly concentrated in FPD, have a collection rate two to four times lower than elements such as copper (37%) which represents a high proportion in CRTs. Recycling is the main treatment in France. Nevertheless, the recycling rate per element varies significantly due to the low collection, and also the lack of technology and/or secondary raw materials market. The elements with higher recycling rates are base metals such as copper (28%), followed by precious metals like silver (23%), and gold (13%). Except for palladium, the recycling rate of the critical raw materials targeted in the study ranged from 6% (cobalt) to 0% (e.g. neodymium and indium). The results stress the need for indicators to support the development of WEEE chain from waste management to secondary (critical) raw materials suppliers.
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ARDUIN, Rachel Horta; CHARBUILLET, Carole; PERRY, Nicolas (2018)Transport is an inherent activity of recycling chains. In LCA studies of e-waste recycling, the transport during the end-of-life management is either not considered or the distances are estimated and are not in accordance ...
ARDUIN, Rachel Horta; CHARBUILLET, Carole; BERTHOUD, Françoise; PERRY, Nicolas (CISA Publisher, Italy, 2017)This work presents a case study for a tablet treated in France. The objective was to assess the impacts of the end-of-life stage and its influence in the final results when considering different waste management scenarios. ...
ARDUIN, Rachel Horta; CHARBUILLET, Carole; BERTHOUD, Françoise; PERRY, Nicolas (IEEE, 2016)In France is estimated a generation of about 17 and 23 kg per year of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) per inhabitant, however, in 2014, the return rate for household WEEE hardly reaches 38% of the total ...
Influence of scope definition in recycling rate calculation for European e-waste extended producer responsibility HORTA ARDUIN, Rachel; GRIMAUD, Guilhem; MARTÍNEZ LEAL, Jorge; POMPIDOU, Stéphane; CHARBUILLET, Carole; LARATTE, Bertrand; ALIX, Thecle; PERRY, Nicolas (Elsevier BV, 2019)Efficiency indicators have been frequently used to assess end-of-life chain performance, mostly. In terms of the percentage of mass sent to re-use, recycling, and/or energy recovery facilities. While legislation gives a ...
Scope Definition on End-of-Life Chain Performance Assessment: Recycling Rate and French E-Waste Chain Case Study ARDUIN, Rachel Horta; LEAL, Jorge Martinez; GRIMAUD, Guilhem; CHARBUILLET, Carole; POMPIDOU, Stéphane; LARATTE, Bertrand; PERRY, Nicolas (2017)Efficiency indicators have been frequently used to assess end-of-life chain performance. While legislations give a standard definition, sometimes stakeholders redefine them to fit their own scopes and objectives. It is ...