Three-Dimensional Cephalometric Landmarking and Frankfort Horizontal Plane Construction: Reproducibility of Conventional and Novel Landmarks
Article dans une revue avec comité de lecture
In some dentofacial deformity patients, especially patients undergoing surgical orthodontic treatments, Computed Tomography (CT) scans are useful to assess complex asymmetry or to plan orthognathic surgery. This assessment would be made easier for orthodontists and surgeons with a three-dimensional (3D) cephalometric analysis, which would require the localization of landmarks and the construction of reference planes. The objectives of this study were to assess manual landmarking repeatability and reproducibility (R&R) of a set of 3D landmarks and to evaluate R&R of vertical cephalometric measurements using two Frankfort Horizontal (FH) planes as references for horizontal 3D imaging reorientation. Thirty-three landmarks, divided into “conventional”, “foraminal” and “dental”, were manually located twice by three experienced operators on 20 randomly-selected CT scans of orthognathic surgery patients. R&R confidence intervals (CI) of each landmark in the -x, -y and -z directions were computed according to the ISO 5725 standard. These landmarks were then used to construct 2 FH planes: a conventional FH plane (orbitale left, porion right and left) and a newly proposed FH plane (midinternal acoustic foramen, orbitale right and left). R&R of vertical cephalometric measurements were computed using these 2 FH planes as horizontal references for CT reorientation. Landmarks showing a 95% CI of repeatability and/or reproducibility > 2 mm were found exclusively in the “conventional” landmarks group. Vertical measurements showed excellent R&R (95% CI < 1 mm) with either FH plane as horizontal reference. However, the 2 FH planes were not found to be parallel (absolute angular difference of 2.41°, SD 1.27°). Overall, “dental” and “foraminal” landmarks were more reliable than the “conventional” landmarks. Despite the poor reliability of the landmarks orbitale and porion, the construction of the conventional FH plane provided a reliable horizontal reference for 3D craniofacial CT scan reorientation.
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