A methodological proposal to assist scenario-based design in the early stages of innovation projects
Article dans une revue avec comité de lecture
This paper presents a methodological contribution to ergonomics in the early stages of innovative design projects, focused on the anticipation of future needs and activities. We examined the effect, on designer activity during simulated design meetings, of a toolset using tools from Creative Problem Solving and reliability engineering, on ideation related to future uses of a product. Multidisciplinary design teams generated scenarios of future use based on the design brief of two innovative products with ill-defined uses: an interactive tabletop interface, and an innovative device to prevent drowning in infants. They worked either in an open fashion, or using brainwriting and morphological analysis to generate ideas related to elements of future use, and combine them together into scenarios. The scenarios were then subjected to claims analysis, using a modified version of the FMECA method. Analysing oral and written traces of designer activity, we measured the fluency of ideas concerning scenario components, complete scenarios, and positive or negative claims derived from these scenarios. Using a questionnaire, we assessed participants’ perceptions of self-efficacy in these work situations. Results show that these tools were viewed as an easier alternative to open exploration of future use from the design brief. Design teams were, within identified limits, able to formulate propositions regarding possible scenarios of future use, and to generate positive and negative claims regarding these scenarios to guide future design projects. Results show the superior ability of ergonomists to produce ideas regarding some elements of future use, as well as scenarios of future use, in the context of defining future use in the early stages of innovation projects.
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