Turbulent boundary layer noise : direct radiation at Mach number 0.5
Article dans une revue avec comité de lecture
Boundary layers constitute a fundamental source of aerodynamic noise. A turbulent boundary layer over a plane wall can provide an indirect contribution to the noise by exciting the structure, and a direct noise contribution. The latter part can play a significant role even if its intensity is very low, explaining why it is hardly measured unambiguously. In the present study, the aerodynamic noise generated by a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer is computed directly by solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. This numerical experiment aims at giving some insight into the noise radiation characteristics. The acoustic wavefronts have a large wavelength and are oriented in the direction opposite to the flow. Their amplitude is only 0.7 % of the aerodynamic pressure for a flat-plate flow at Mach 0.5. The particular directivity is mainly explained by convection effects by the mean flow, giving an indication about the compactness of the sources. These vortical events correspond to low-frequencies, and have thus a large life time. They cannot be directly associated with the main structures populating the boundary layer such as hairpin or horseshoe vortices. The analysis of the wall pressure can provide a picture of the flow in the frequency-wavenumber space. The main features of wall pressure beneath a turbulent boundary layer as described in the literature are well reproduced. The acoustic domain, corresponding to supersonic wavenumbers, is detectable but can hardly be separated from the convective ridge at this relatively high speed. This is also due to the low frequencies of sound emission as noted previously.
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